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Previous Translations. — The manuscript in 

the British Museum (MS. Reg. 12, c. xii) which 
contains the history now specially translated for the 
"King's Classics" by Mrs. Kemp-Welch, has been 
several times published — in 1833 by Sir Thomas 
Duffus Hardy, in 1840 by Francisque Michel, in 
1855 by Thomas Wright for the Warton Club, in 
1858 by L. Moland and C. d'Hericault in their 
Nouvellesfrancoises en prose du xiv e s., and in 1875 by 
Joseph Stevenson, at the end of Radulph de Cogge- 
shall's Chronkon Anglicanum (Rolls Series). It has been 
translated into English by Thomas Wright and Joseph 
Stevenson, in their works above alluded to ; it has 
been examined critically in the same works, as well as 
in the edition of Francisque Michel, and in the article 
by Paulin Paris in Histoire Litteraire de la France (vol. 
xxvii, pp. 164-186); it has been noticed and epito- 

mized by Leland and by Sir Thomas Duftus Hardy ; 
it has been made use of by Thomas Wright in his 
History ofLudlozv ; and the general results of the works 
of which it has formed the subject-matter have been 
well summarized, reviewed, and greatly enriched by 
Mr. H. L. D. Ward in his Catalogue of Romances in the 
Department of MSS. in the British Museum (vol. i, pp. 
Ambiguous Character of the Text. — Sir 

Thomas Duftus Hardy, on p. 41 of vol. 3 of his 
Descriptive Catalogue of Materials relating to the history 
of Great Britain and Ireland to the end of the reign of 
Henry Vll (London, 1871), has already recognized 
the ambiguous character of this work. " It seems," 
he says, " to be partly romance and partly history." 
The editors who came after him did no more than 
develop this remark of the great English scholar, and 
the sum and substance of their dissertations is, that 
Fulk Fitz-JVarine is an historical romance containing 
much romance and a little history. 

Its Foundation on Fact. — Such history as it 
contains has been revealed by a study of the Public 
Rolls which concern Fulk and the other Fitz-Warines 
and which have been very conveniently, and almost in 
their entirety, collected by the Rev. W. Eyton in his 

Antiquities of Shropshire. 1 It has been admirably sum- 
marized by Mr. H. L. D. Ward, whose own words we 
cannot do better than quote. "The romancer," he 
says, " has entirely forgotten Fulk I., who died before 
Michaelmas, 1 171, but the other genealogical matters 
seem to be fairly correct. It is quite certain that 
Fulk II., who died before Michaelmas, 1198, really 
married Haweis de Dinan ; that the Fitz-Warins had 
long-standing claims to the castle of Whittington ; 
that the castle was delivered over to the Welsh Prince 
Meuric ; that Fulk III. consequently rebelled in 
1 201 ; and that this outlawry was revoked on the 1 5th 
November, 1203. Among the fifty-two names of his 
companions attached to the pardon are those of 
William Fitz-Fulk and Philip and Ivo Fitzwarin, 
probably all three of them brothers of Fulk III., and 
also those of Baldwin de Hodenet and William Mal- 
veissin ... It is also certain that Fulk III. married 
Matilda, the widow of Theobald Walter . . . On the 
other hand, it is equally certain that Theobald Walter 
is mentioned as still alive on the 4th August, 1205, 
though he seems to have died before October 8 of 
that year . . . Fulk rose again in arms in the Easter- 

1 For the genealogical questions, consult the genealogical 
tables in the Rev. W. Eyton's Antiquities of Shropshire. 

week (April 1 9 to 25) of 1 2 1 5 , and joined Robert Fitz- 
Walter ; and it was not till more than a year after King 
John's death that Fulk made his peace again, and 
obtained reseizen of his lands, namely in November 
1 2 17. He continued to be regarded as a dangerous 
Baron Marcher ; and in November 1222, the Earl of 
Chester was urged to inspect the fortifications going 
on at Whittington Castle, and to see that they were 
not made stronger than were required for the purpose 
of resisting the Welsh . . . There are indications that 
Fulk IV. acted for his father during the last years of 
his life ; and this again favours an assertion made by 
the romancer, namely, that he was blind for seven 
years. He seems to have died before August 1260." 

Its Element of Romance. — Such are the 

historic data on which the author's work has been 
built up. To these he has added anachronisms, matter 
purely imaginative, faithful and picturesque descrip- 
tions of places in Shropshire with which he was very 
familiar, and legends then current in England, as well 
as souvenirs of chansons ae gcsie with which he had 
become acquainted on the Continent. At the very 
outset, for example, he borrows, from a local tradition, 
the legend of Payn Peverel, " le ficr et hardy cosyn le 
roi," who happily delivered the country from the 

giant Geomagog, who, after having been slain by 
Corineus, had had his body taken possession of by the 
Devil, which prevented the Britons from inhabiting 
Chastiel Bran, and he ends by recalling the memories 
associated with the name of " Blanche Vile, qui en le 
temps le roy Arthur la Blanche Lande fust nommee," 
and by displaying the knowledge he possessed of the 
legend of the Holy Grail, and of the Merlinesque 
prophecies. Moreover, he seems to have desired to 
add to the renown of his hero and his family by 
connecting them with the great Garin le Loherain, 
who is not otherwise referred to in history, and 
whose very existence is not attested save in the chan- 
sons de geste. He must have known the Renaud de 
Montauban group above all, and Mr. Ward has 
pointed this out in his work above alluded to, al- 
though it seems to me that he has not sufficiently 
emphasized the fact. He confines himself to saying 
that " his mind often reverted to the deeds of the 
Quatre fils Aymon ; to the fatal quarrel between Re- 
naud de Montauban and Charlemagne's nephew over 
the chess-board ; to the taunts of Roland against Ogier 
for sparing his outlawed cousins ; and to Richard's 
appearing before Charlemagne in the arms of the 
Knight sent to capture him." He adds, " it is prob- 

ably owing to the same chanson that Fulk, like Renaud, 
releases his sovereign when he has him completely at 
his mercy." 

Its Relation to Renaud de Montauban. — 

These observations are just, but they do not go far 
enough. It seems possible to go much further, and 
that one must admit that the text itself of Renaud 
de Montauban was quite familiar to our author. He 
certainly knew of the use of the chess-board made by 
Landri and Chariot. But is there not a singular 
resemblance between the scene in which Renaud de 
Montauban, struck by the wrathful Bertolais, goes to 
make complaint to Charlemagne, and that in which 
Prince John, struck by Fulk, goes to make complaint 
to his father, King Henry II. ? And does not the 
reply of Henry II. to his son recall in a forcible 
manner, and in a way to suggest a direct imitation, 
or a remarkably exact reminiscence, Charlemagne's 
reply to Renaud ? " Tes tey, mauvah" says our 

" Comme Karles l'oi't, si en fut mult irie ; 
malvaii garpn t coart avoit Renaud huci6." 

In the same way, when Fulk arrives at Alberbury, 
he relates to his mother, Dame Hawyse, the wander- 
ings of himself and his brothers, and Dame Hawyse 

gives him "grant aveyr." When Renaud, Alard, 
Guichard, and Richard come to Dordon to meet their 
mother, an exactly similar thing happens. 

" L'afaire li conterent comment il ont ouvre," 
and she tells them, 

" Portez de raon avoir a mult grande plente." 

Again, Charlemagne's anger and his imprecations 
against the Fils Aymon, his manner of calling to mind 
the fact that he has vanquished thirty kings, all 
striving with each other who could best serve him, 
and that none of all the lords whom he had subdued 
dared fight against him — 

" Fors rois Yus de Gascoigne ki tos est asotis, 
Qui contre moi recete mes mortes enemis 
Les .iiii. fix Aymon que tout jor ai hai's," 

reminds us at once of the fine passage in Fulk Fitz- 
Warir.e, where John Lackland exclaims, " Hay, 
Seinte Marie, je su roy, Engleterre guye, due su 
d'Angoye, et de Normaundye et tote Yrlande est en 
ma segnorie ; e je ne pus trover ne aver en tot moun 
poer, pur quanqe je pus doner, nul se me velt venger 
de la damage e hontage que Fouke m'ad fet. Mes je 
ne lerroy qe je ne me venjeroy de le prince." 

These passages certainly prove that the author of 
Fulk Fltz-Warlne must have often heard, or read 

over and over again, the adventures of the Quatre 
Fils Aymon. He was, moreover, a connoisseur ot 
the current literature, as we are led to imagine from 
the first sentence of our simple story, rendered into 
prose from the opening so frequent in the chansons de 
gestes — 

" Ce fu el mois de Mai, a l'entree d'este, 
Que foillissent cil bos et verdoient li pre." 

or in the ordinary songs — 

" Quant florist la pree, 
Que li douz tenz doit venir, 
Qu'oiseaux par ramee 
Font escouter lor doz cris, 
Adonc chant, &c." 

And there is nothing surprising in the fact that he 
should have called to remembrance the Quatre Fils 
Aymon when he had to relate the adventures of 
Warine's five sons. 

If to this is added the fact that remarkable re- 
semblances to passages in Huon de Bordeaux, and 
other chansons de geste, as well as commonplaces 
proper to these poems, are also to be found, enough 
will have been said to show conclusively that the 
mind of the Trouvcre was stored with romantic 
ideas dear to the Middle Ages. 

Fulk and Robin Hood. — The adventures of 
Fulk Fitz-Warine are worthy to rank with those of 
Eustace the Monk, Hereward, Robert Bruce, and 
Robin Hood. It is especially with those of the last- 
named that they present striking resemblances. Is it 
a mere chance, for instance, that the oldest ballad of 
the cycle of Robin Hood which has come down to 
us, presents so great an analogy with the debut of Fulk 
Fitz-Warine ? And if one of the oldest ballads con- 
tains the lines — 

" It befelle be god Edwards days 
For soth so the romans says, 
Harkying, I will you telle, 
The Kyng to Scherwod gan wend 
For to solas hym that stond 
The grete herte for to hunte 
In frythys and felle," 

is it correct to say with Thomas Wright {Essays, II, 
172), that "the expression, l so the romans says,' 
seems to have become a mere hackneyed phrase, used 
without any meaning " ? Is it by mere chance, again, 
that, in the lines of Piers Plozvmafi — 

" I can nou^te perfidy my pater-noster as the prest it syngeth : 
But I can rymes of Robyn Hood and Randolf Erie of Chester," 

mention is made of one who, under the name of 

Randolfe, Count of Chester, plays an important, 
although secondary, part in the romance of Fulk 
Fitz-Warine ? And finally, is it merely an accidental 
circumstance that the two renowned outlaws act in so 
similar a manner in despoiling those they meet con- 
veying merchandise to the King of England, or to 
the Sheriff of Nottingham ? There is not, at the 
present time, any possible answer to all the questions 
we ask ourselves respecting the relations that may 
have existed between the original type of Robin 
Hood and that of Fulk Fitz-Warine. But it is at any 
rate useful to ask them, and the mere fact that we can 
do this, leads us to imagine that there was a more 
profound intermingling of the French literature de- 
veloped in England, and the popular English literature, 
than is generally recognized. 

Style and Dialect. — The Manuscript is written 
in rather poor French. All the faults committed by 
Anglo-Norman writers are to be found in it, and the 
native dialect of the author or authors is not easily 
discoverable. But the narration is often full of 
picturesqueness and vivacity. The taking of the 
Castle of Dynan by Sir Ernalt, the scene of carnage 
which ensued, the slaying of the conqueror by his 
mistress, the lamentations of the murderess, and her 

terrible suicide, all constitute a series of scenes of 
poignant interest. The descriptions are tempered, 
the accessory anecdotes are treated in a tone of 
moderation, and the terseness and clearness of the 
dialogues are remarkable. Examples of these qualities 
will be found to some extent throughout, but above 
all in the conversation of Payn with Geomagog, in the 
lamentations of Marion de la Bruere, in the scene of 
the chess-board, in Fulk's interview with John Lack- 
land, in the scene between Fulk and the merchants, 
in his interview with the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
in the daring behaviour of the minstrel John de 
Rampaigne, in Fulk's adventures in France when he 
is welcomed by King Philip, in his conversation with 
Mador, in the charming episode of the daughter of 
Aunflorreis of Orkney, in the scene of the charcoal- 
burner, in Fulk's adventures with Messobryns's sister, 
and in his repentance. 

From the whole there emanates a poetic perfume 
which alone would prove that we have to do with a 
poem rendered into prose, even if we had not got, in 
the text itself, numerous pages where whole passages 
in verse are met with. In his preface, Thomas Wright 
has said what is essential on this subject. We will 
content ourselves with referring the reader to his 


preface, and also to the notice of H. L. D. Ward, for 
all that concerns the relation of Fulk Fitz-Warine 
with the works of Anthony Munday and of Henry 

Among the works which have derived, more or 
less immediately, their inspiration from the history of 
Fulk Fitz-Warine, we think it is of interest to note 
Professor Skeat's Ludlozv Castle, in which the author 
so skilfully versified the love-story of Havise, evidently 
under the influence of Sir Walter Scott. 

Louis Brandin. 

T N the time of April and May, when once again 
J_ the meadows and the pastures become green, and 
all living things renew their virtue and beauty and 
strength, and the hills and the valleys resound with 
the sweet warble of the birds, and, by reason of the 
beauty of the weather and of the season, all hearts 
are uplifted and made glad, then is it meet that we 
should call to remembrance the adventures and the 
brave deeds of our ancestors, who made endeavour 
to seek honour in loyalty, and to relate such things 
as should be profitable to many. 

Good sirs, of old have you heard tell how that 
William the Bastard, the Duke of Normandy, came, 
with a great host, and folk without number, into 
England, and there conquered by force all the land, 
and slew the King Harold, and caused himself to be 
crowned at London, and established peace and laws 
as it pleased him, and bestowed lands on divers folk 
who came with him. At that time Owen Gwynned 
was Prince of Wales, and he was a valiant and dexterous 

warrior, and the King feared him more than all beside. 
This Owen had laid waste all the march, and all was 
void from Chester unto Mount Gilbert. And the 
King equipped himself very richly, and with a great 
host he came into the county of Shrewsbury, and 
found all the towns from Chester unto Shrewsbury 
burnt, for the Prince claimed all the march for his 
own, and as pertaining to Powis. 

And the Prince withdrew, for he dared not await 
the King. And the King was very wise, and he 
bethought him that he would give the lands of the 
march to the most valiant knights of all his host, to 
the end that the march might be defended against 
the Prince, to their own profit, and to the honour of 
their lord, the King. And the King called unto him 
Roger de Belehealme, and gave unto him all the 
county of Shrewsbury free of all service, and it was 
called a County Palatine. And Roger founded without 
the town of Shrewsbury an abbey of St. Peter, and he 
endowed it right richly. And he held the county all 
his life. He began a castle at Brugge, and another he 
began at Dynan, but never did he finish them. 

And after that Roger was dead, Robert, his son, 
had all the county of Shrewsbury, and Ernald, his 
younger son, had Pembroke. They were men very 

wanton and very base, and they did great wrong to 
their lord, King Henry, the son of William the Bastard, 
and brother to King William Rufus, in that they 
finished the castle of Brugge despite the behest of 
King Henry, for the which King Henry dispossessed 
them, and banished them for the rest of their days, 
and gave their lands to his knights. And the castle 
of Dynan, and all the country around on the borders 
of the river of Corve, with all its fiefs, he gave to 
Sir Joce, his knight. And from that time forth he 
took unto himself the surname of Dynan, and was 
called of all Joce de Dynan. And this Joce finished 
the castle the which Roger de Belehealme in his time 
had begun, and he was a strong and valiant knight. 
And longwhile was the town called Dynan which is 
now called Ludlow. And this Joce caused to be 
built, below the town of Dynan, a bridge of stone 
and lime, extending beyond the river of Teme to the 
highway which passes over the march from Chester 
to Bristol. And Joce built his castle of Dynan with 
three walls, and encompassed it about with two 
fosses, one within and one without. 

Now when King William the Bastard came to the 
hills and valleys of Wales, he saw a very large town, 
aforetime enclosed with high walls, all burnt and laid 

waste. And below the town, in a plain, he caused 
his tents to be set up, and there would he remain, 
said he, that night. Then inquired the King of a 
Briton the name of the town, and how it came to be 
thus laid waste. " Sire," said the Briton, " this will 
I tell you. The castle was aforetime called Castle 
Bran, but now it is called the Old March. In time 
past there came into this country one Brutus, a very 
valiant knight, and Corineus, from whom Cornwall 
has still its name, and many others derived from the 
lineage of Troy. And none inhabited these parts 
save some very ill-favoured folk, great giants, whose 
king was called Geomagog. And these heard of the 
coming of Brutus, and they set them forth to en- 
counter him. And at last all the giants were slain, 
save only Geomagog, who was of marvellous size. 
And Corineus, the valiant, said that willingly would 
he do combat with Geomagog, to essay the strength 
of Geomagog. And at the first onset, so tightly 
did the giant embrace Corineus, that he brake three 
of his ribs. And Corineus was filled with anger, and 
struck Geomagog with his foot, so that he fell from 
a great rock into the sea, and there was Geomagog 
drowned. And then an evil spirit entered into the 
body of Geomagog, and came into these parts, and 

long did he defend the country, so that never Briton 
dared dwell there. And longwhile after, King Bran, 
the son of Donwal, caused the city to be rebuilt, and 
he made good the walls, and strengthened the large 
fosses, and he built Burgh and Great March. And 
the Evil Spirit came by night, and despoiled all that 
was therein, and since then has no one ever dwelt 

Greatly did the King marvel at this. And Payn 
Peverel, a proud and brave knight, cousin to the King, 
heard all, and said that that night he would essay the 
marvel. And Payn Peverel armed himself very richly, 
and took his shield of shining gold, with a cross in- 
dented azure, and fifteen knights and other men-at- 
arms, and he went into the chiefest palace, and there 
lodged him. And when that the night was come, the 
weather became so foul and black and dark, and there 
arose such a tempest of lightning and thunder, that 
so affrighted were all those who were there, that 
they could stir neither foot nor hand, but lay upon 
the ground as though dead. And the proud Payn 
was sore afraid, but he put his trust in the God whose 
sign of the cross he bore, and he perceived that he 
could have no help save from God alone. And he lay 
upon the ground, and with right true devotion he 

prayed God and his Mother Mary that they would 
defend him that night from the power of the Evil One. 
And scarce was his prayer ended, than there came the 
Devil in the semblance of Geomagog, and he carried 
in his hand a large club, and from his mouth he hurled 
forth fire and smoke, by the which the town was all 
illumined. But Payn had great trust in God, and 
signed himself with the cross, and valiantly did he 
assail the Devil. And the Devil uplifted his club, 
and would have struck Payn, but that he avoided the 
blow. And by reason of the cross, the Devil was 
sore dismayed, and his strength failed him, for he 
could not come nigh the cross. And Payn pursued 
him until he smote him with his sword, so that he 
began to cry out, and fell all flat upon the ground, 
and yielded himself vanquished, " Sir Knight," said 
he, " you have laid me low not by reason of your own 
strength, but by virtue of the cross which you bear." 
" Tell me, you ill-favoured creature," said Payn, " who 
you are, and what is your concern in this town. I 
conjure you in the name of God and of the Holy 
Cross." Then began the Evil One to relate, word 
for word, that which the Briton had erewhile re- 
counted, and he told how that as soon as Geomagog 
was dead, forthwith he rendered his soul to Beelzebub, 

their Prince, who entered into the body of Geomagog, 
and came in his form into these parts to guard the 
great treasure which Geomagog had gathered together 
and put into a house which he had made beneath the 
ground in that town. And Payn asked of him what 
sort of creature he was, and he made answer that 
aforetime he was an angel, but that now, for his 
offence, he was become an evil spirit. " And what 
treasure," said Payn, " had Geomagog ? " " Oxen, 
and cows, and swans, and peacocks, and horses, and all 
other beasts, wrought in fine gold. And he had a 
golden bull, the which, through my aid, was his seer, 
and in it was all his trust, and it told unto him the 
adventures that were to befall. And twice in each 
year did the giants do homage to their god, the 
which was the golden bull, by the which so much gold 
was gathered together, that it is a marvel. And after- 
ward it came to pass that all this land was called the 
White Plain, and I and my comrades set the plain about 
with a high wall and a deep fosse, so that there was 
no way in save only by this town, the which was full 
of evil spirits. And in the plain we held jousts and 
tournaments, and many came for to see the marvels, 
but never an one escaped. And at last there came a 
disciple of Jesus, who was called Augustine, and by 

reason of his preaching he took many from us, and 
he baptized folk, and built a chapel in his name ; 
from the which sore trouble came to us." " Now 
tell me," said Payn, " where is the treasure of which 
you have spoken." " Knight," answered he, "speak no 
more of that, for it is destined for others. But you 
will be lord of all this fief, and those who shall come 
after you shall hold it with much strife and war. 
And from thy default will issue the wolf who will 
do wonders, who will have sharp teeth, and will be 
known of all, and will be so strong and fierce that 
he will drive the wild boar from out the White 
Plain, such great power will he have. The leopard 
will follow the wolf and will menace him at arm's 
length. The wolf will leave woods and hills, in the 
water will he dwell with the fishes, and he will pass 
over the sea, and will environ this whole island. At 
length will he subdue the leopard by his cunning and 
his artifice. Then will he come into this plain, and 
will make his stronghold in the water." 

And when the Spirit had thus spoken, he came out 
of the body, and there arose such a stench, that Payn 
thought to die of it. And when the Spirit was de- 
parted, the night cleared, and the weather became 
fair, and the knights and the others who had been 

affrighted, rallied themselves, and much marvelled 
they at the adventure which had chanced to them. 
And on the morrow the matter was shown to the King 
and to all the host. And the King caused the body of 
Geomagog to be brought, and to be cast into a deep 
pit without the town, but he caused the club to be 
preserved, and longwhile he showed it unto the 
people because of the marvel of its size. 

And the King departed thence, and came into a 
country hard by the White Plain, the which aforetime 
belonged to a Briton, Meredus, the son of Beledyns. 
And on the border of it was a small castle called 
Tree of Oswald, but now is it called Osewaldestre. 
And the King summoned a knight, Alan, the son of 
Flaeu, and gave unto him the small castle with its 
fiefs. And from this Alan come all the great lords 
of England who have for surname Fitz Alan. And 
later, this Alan caused the castle to be much 

And the King passed the river of Severn, and saw 
that the country around was good and fair. And he 
called unto him a knight who was born in Lorraine, 
in the city of Metz, and who was much renowned 
for strength, for comeliness, and for courtesy. And 
his banner was of red samite, with two golden pea- 

cocks. And he gave to him Alberbury, with all its 
fiefs. And in such manner did the King grant unto 
his best and most trusty knights all the lands, chases, 
and fees, from Chester even unto Bristol. 

And the King sent for Payn Peverel, and made 
grant to him of the White Plain, with its forests and 
wastes and chases, and all the land. And there was 
on it a little hill environed by marsh and water. And 
there Payn built a fair and strong tower, and the little 
hill was called Waybury, and there runs by it a river, 
the which takes its name from Payn Peverel, and it is 
called Peverel, but to fore it was called Pevereynes. 
And after that he had thus set the country in order, 
the King went back to London, and from London to 
Normandy, and there he died. Then there reigned 
in England William Rufus, his son, and after him, 
Henry, his younger brother, who afterward detained 
Robert Courthose, his eldest brother, in prison, his 
whole life long, the reason of which will not be here 
set out. 

And then it happed that Payn Peverel died in his 
castle on the Peak. And William Peverel, the son of 
his sister, became possessed of all the heritage of Payn. 
And after, this William conquered with his sword all 
the land of Morlas even to the waters of Dee, and 

Ellesmere, and Maelor, and Nauhendon. And this 
William built a tower in the White Plain, and he 
called it White-Tower, the which is in English Whit- 
tington. And in Ellesmere he built another tower, 
and yet another on the waters of Keyroc. And 
William had two fair nieces, the elder Eleyne, and 
the younger Melette, and he gave Eleyne to the son 
of Alan to wife, and bestowed on her, on her marriage, 
all the land of Morlas as far as Keyroc. But Melette 
was the fairer, and for her beauty she was the more 
desired, but none found favour with her. And 
William reasoned with her, and besought of her that 
she would discover unto him if there was in the world 
any knight whom she would take for lord, and if there 
was not such an one, then would he aid her all he 
could. " Certes, Sire," said she, " no knight is there 
in all the world that I would take for the sake of 
riches and the honour of lands, but if ever I take such 
an one, he shall be handsome, and courteous, and 
accomplished, and the most valiant of his order in 
all Christendom. Of riches I make no account, for 
truly can I say that he is rich who has that which his 
heart desires." And William, when he heard this, 
smiled, and said, " Sweet niece, well have you spoken, 
and I will aid you as much as in me lies to find such 

a lord. And for portion I will give you White- 
Tower, and all that belongs to it, with all its fiefs, 
for so much the more will the woman who has land 
in fee be sought after." Then William made a 
proclamation in many a land, and in many a city, 
that all the knights of worth who would tourney for 
love, should come at the feast of St. Michael to the 
castle of Peverel, which is on the Peak, and the 
knight who should do best, and should win the tourna- 
ment, that one should have the love of Melette of 
the White-Tower, and should be lord and seigneur 
of White Town and of all its fiefs. And forthwith 
was this proclamation published throughout many 
lands. And Guarin de Metz, the valiant, had neither 
wife nor child, and he made known to John, the Duke 
of Brittany, all the contents of this proclamation, 
and prayed of him aid and succour in his need. And 
the Duke was very valiant. He had ten sons who were 
knights, the fairest and the most valiant of body in 
all Brittany — Roger, the eldest, and Howel,andAudoin, 
and Urien, and Theobald, and Bertram, and Amis, 
and Guichard, and Gerard, and Guy. And the Duke 
sent these ten sons, and an hundred knights with them, 
well mounted, and furnished with rich apparel, to 
his cousin Guarin dc Metz, and he received them with 


great honour. And Eneas, the son of the King of 
Scotland, came with the Count of Murray ; and also 
the Bruces, the Dunbars, and the Umfrevilles, and 
two hundred knights. And Owen, the Prince of 
Wales, came with two hundred shields, and the Duke 
of Burgundy with three hundred knights. Ydromor, 
the son of the King of Galloway, came with an 
hundred and fifty knights. And the knights of 
England were numbered at three hundred. And 
Guarin de Metz and his companions encamped them- 
selves in tents set in the forest nigh unto where the 
tournament should be, well clad by mutual accord 
in red samite, and in warlike fashion were their steeds 
accoutred down to the ground. And Guarin himself, 
so as to be unknown of the others, bare a crest of gold. 
Then resounded the tabors, the trumpets, and the 
saracen horns, until the valleys echoed with the sound. 
And the tournament waxed fierce and desperate. 
There could one see knights unhorsed, and many 
hard blows given, and many overcome. 

And the damsel, and many ladies, had ascended a 
tower, and saw the fair assemblage of knights, and 
how each one bore himself. To record the blows and 
the issues I am not minded, but Guarin de Metz and 
his company proved that day the best, the fairest, 

and the most valiant, and above all, Guarin was the 
most praised in all ways. And the evening drew nigh, 
and because of the night, the tournament could no 
longer endure. The knights departed to their hostels, 
and Guarin and his companions returned privily to 
their tents in the forest, and disarmed them, and 
made great rejoicing. And not one of the other 
great lords knew whither they went, or who they 
were, so secretly did they bear themselves, and they 
were unknown of all. 

And on the morrow a general tourney was proclaimed. 
Then Guarin came to the joust as if by chance, and 
all unknown, and decked with ivy leaves all fresh 
from the forest. And when the Duke of Burgundy 
espied him, anon he rushed upon him, and dealt him 
a heavy blow with his lance, and Guarin struck him 
back, and he was unhorsed in the middle of the lists, 
and then fell another, and then a third. And Melette 
of the White-Tower sent him her glove, and prayed 
of him to defend her. And he made answer that he 
would do what in him lay, and then he repaired to the 
forest, and armed himself with his red harness, and 
came with his companions into the lists, and he was 
victorious in the tourney, and held the field against 
all comers. Then was it adjudged by all the great 

lords and the heralds and the umpires, that to Guarin, 
who was the victorious knight, of right fell the prize 
of the tournament, and Melette of the White-Tower. 
And with great joy did he take her, and the damsel 
him. Then they sent for the Bishop of the country, 
and, in the sight of all, they were wedded. And 
William Peverel made a very rich feast at the marriage, 
and when that the feast was ended, Guarin took his 
spouse and his company, and they departed to White 
Town, and there they stayed in great felicity forty 
days. Then the ten brothers returned with their 
hundred knights to Brittany, but Guy, the youngest 
brother, remained in England, and conquered with 
his sword many fair lands, and he was called Guy 
l'Estrange, and from him are descended all the great 
lords of England who have for surname Estrange. 

And longwhile in great honour Guarin de Metz 
held the lordship of White Town, but Jervard, the 
son of Owen, Prince of Wales, did him great damage, 
and slew his people and laid waste his lands. And 
then a day of battle was appointed, when many 
brave men perished. And in the end, Jervard was 
vanquished, for he lost many of his men, and he 
abandoned the field and fled in dishonour. 

Then did Guarin appoint a very powerful and 

brave knight, Guy, the son of Candelou de Porkington, 
to guard the honour of White Town and the other 
lands. And it befell that the lady became with child. 
And when she was delivered at the time ordained of 
God, they called the child Fulk. And when the child 
was seven years of age, they sent him to Joce de Dynan 
to teach and to nurture, for Joce was a knight of 
learning. And Joce received him with great honour 
and great tenderness, and he nourished him in his 
chambers with his children, for he had two daughters, 
of whom the younger was of the like age with Fulk, 
and she was called Hawyse. And the elder was 
named Sibylle. And at this time there was great 
discord and strife betwixt Sir Joce de Dynan and 
Sir Walter de Lacy, who then sojourned much at 
Ewyas. And by reason of this discord, many good 
knights and many brave men perished, for they 
harried one another, and set fire to their lands, and 
plundered and robbed their people, and much other 
damage did they. And when Fulk was eighteen 
years of age, he was very fair, and strong, and tall. 

And on a day in summer, Sir Joce arose early, and 

mounted a tower in the middle of his castle to survey 

the country. And he looked towards the hill which 

is called Whitecliff, and descried the fields covered 


with knights and esquires, and men-at-arms and 
valets, some armed on horseback, and some a-foot, 
and he heard the horses neigh and saw the helmets 
glitter. And amongst them he saw the banner of 
Sir Walter de Lacy, emblazoned with new gold, a 
fess gules. Then he called to his knights, and bade 
them arm them and mount their steeds and take their 
crossbowmen and their archers, and go to the bridge 
below the town of Dynan, and hold the bridge and 
the ford that none might pass there. And Sir Walter 
and his followers thought to pass in safety, but the 
followers of Sir Joce drave them back, and many 
on both sides were drowned and slain. Then came 
Sir Joce with his banner argent, three lions passant 
azure, surmounted with crowns or, and with him were 
five hundred knights and men-at-arms, on horseback 
and a-foot, besides burgesses and their servants, who 
were good men. And Joce passed the bridge in great 
force, and the hosts hurled themselves against one 

And with his lance Joce pierced Godebrand, who 
carried the banner of de Lacy, through his body, and 
de Lacy lost his banner. Then the combatants fell 
upon each other, and on both sides there were many 
slain. But de Lacy was worsted, wherefore he fled 
17 c 

discomfited, and wended his way along the river of 
Teme. And the lady, with her daughters and her 
other maidens, had ascended a tower, and from there 
they saw all the battle, and devoutly they prayed 
God that he would save their lord and his folk from 
hurt and damage. And Joce de Dynan knew Walter 
de Lacy by his harness, and he saw him fleeing all 
alone, for great fear had he for his life. And he drave 
his spurs into his steed, and passed the hills and vales, 
and in a short while he was come up with de Lacy in 
a valley below the wood toward Broomfield, and he 
demanded of him to yield. And de Lacy saw no one 
save Joce only, and he turned him back very boldly. 
And they fell upon one another fiercely, for neither 
looked for quarter from the other. And they ex- 
changed great and heavy blows. And to Joce it 
seemed that too longwhile did the combat endure, and 
he raised his sword with ire, and struck de Lacy on the 
shield, so that he clave it in twain, and badly did he 
wound him through the left arm. And Joce at- 
tacked him hotly, and nearly had he taken him, when 
Sir Godard de Bruce, and two knights with him, 
came to the succour of de Lacy. And very boldly 
did Sir Godard and his fellows assail Sir Joce on all 
sides, and he defended himself against them like a lion. 

And the lady and her daughters in the tower saw 
their lord so pressed, that scarce could they endure, and 
they wept, and they swooned, and made great lament- 
ation, for never more did they think to see their lord 
alive. And Fulk Fitz-Warine was left in the castle, for 
he was but eighteen years old, and he heard the cry 
in the tower, and mounted in haste, and saw the lady 
and all the others weeping. And he went to Hawyse, 
and asked of her what ailed her, and wherefore she 
bore such doleful countenance. And she made 
answer, " Be silent. Little do you resemble your 
father, who is so brave and so strong, and you are a 
coward, and always will be. See you not that my 
lord, who has cherished and nourished you with great 
tenderness, is in peril of death yonder for lack of aid ? 
And you, villain, go hither and thither in safety, 
and give it no thought." And the valet, because of 
her reproof, was all filled with anger and vexation, 
and anon he descended from the tower, and found in 
the hall an old and rusty hauberk, and forthwith he 
put it on as best he knew how, and he took in his hand 
a large Danish axe. And he went to a stable the 
which was nigh unto the postern leading to the river, 
and there he found a pack-horse. And forthwith 
he mounted the pack-horse, and went forth by the 

postern, and soon passed the river, and went to the 
field where his lord was struck down from off his 
steed, and on the point to be slain if he had not come 
up. And Fulk had an ill-fashioned helm, the which 
well-nigh covered his shoulders. And at the first 
onset he struck with his axe Godard de Bruce, who 
had seized his lord, and he clave his spine in twain, 
and he set his lord again in his saddle. And then 
Fulk addressed himself to Sir Andrew de Preez, and 
he dealt at him with his axe on his helm of white 
steel, so that he clave it clean to the teeth. And 
Sir Arnald de Lys saw well that in nowise could he 
escape, for he was sore wounded, and he yielded him 
to Sir Joce. And de Lacy defended himself, but in 
a little he was captured. 

And then were Sir Walter de Lacy and Sir Arnald 
de Lys taken, and they were led over the river to the 
castle of Dynan. Then spake Sir Joce, " Friend 
burgess, you are very strong and brave, and but for 
you I should have been now dead. Much am I 
beholden to you, and shall be for alway. You shall 
dwell with me, and never will I fail you." And Joce 
thought that he had been a burgess, for the burgesses 
of right carried arms, and those which the lad bore 
were rusty and rude. Then the lad made answer 

and said, " Sire, 1 am no burgess. Know you me 
not ? I am Fulk, your foster-child." " Fair son," 
said he, " blessed be the day that ever I nourished 
you. Never is labour lost which is done for a brave 

Then they led Sir Walter and Sir Arnald to a tower 
which is called Pendover, and there they caused their 
wounds to be dressed, and they guarded them in great 
honour. And each day the lady and her daughters 
and their damsels comforted and solaced Sir Walter 
and Sir Arnald de Lys. 

And Sir Arnald was a young bachelor, and fair, 
and he was greatly overcome of love of Marion de la 
Bruere, a very pretty damsel, and she was the chief 
serving-woman to the lady of the castle of Dynan. 
And oft did Sir Arnald and the damsel hold converse 
together, for each day she came unto the tower with 
her lady for to comfort Sir Walter de Lacy and Sir 
Arnald. And on a day it happed that Sir Arnald, 
when that he saw occasion, besought the damsel, and 
said that she was the one he most loved, and so much 
was he overcome of love of her, that no rest could he 
have day or night without she yielded to him, for she 
could aid him in all his troubles. And if this she 
would do, then would he plight his honour that never 

another would he love, but her only, and as soon as 
he should be free, then would he take her to wife. 
And the damsel heard the fair promise, and granted 
unto him to do all his will, and took surety of him that 
he would do by her according to his promise. And the 
damsel made promise to them that she would privily 
aid them to the utmost, to the end that they might 
be delivered out of prison. And she took towels and 
sheets, and carried them to the tower, and sewed them 
together, and with these she let down Sir Walter 
and Sir Arnald from the tower, and she prayed of 
them to keep their faith, and the promise which 
they had made unto her. And they answered her 
that loyally would they behave to her, without 
breaking their pledge, and they commended her to 

And Sir Walter and Sir Arnald departed on 'their 
way all alone a-foot. And at daybreak they came to 
Ewyas, to the castle of Sir Walter de Lacy. And 
when the people saw their lord returned sound and 
in health, it needs not to ask if they were well pleased, 
for they thought to have lost him for aye. And on 
the morrow, Joce de Dynan arose, and he went to 
his chapel within the castle, the which was built and 
was dedicated to the honour of the Magdalene, and 

the day of dedication was the day of St. Cyriac, with 
seventy days of pardon. Here he heard the service 
of God, and when that he had done this, he ascended 
the highest tower which is in the third bailey of the 
castle, the which is now called of many Mortimer. 
And for this reason has it the name of Mortimer, 
that longwhile was one of the Mortimers imprisoned 
in it. And Joce surveyed the country, and naught 
saw he amiss. And he descended from the tower, 
and sounded the horn for washing, and sent for his 
prisoner, Sir Walter, for he held him in such honour 
that never would he wash or eat afore him. And 
the prisoners were sought everywhere. But to no 
purpose was it, for they were escaped. And Sir Joce 
made no semblance of regret for their going, nor did 
he take any heed of it. 

And Sir Walter thought to avenge himself or die. 
And he sent for his people of Ireland, and took into 
his pay knights and others, so that there was rude 
combat and hard fighting betwixt Sir Walter and 
Sir Joce. And the earls and the barons of England 
saw the great mortality and the hurt which had 
chanced, and which still chanced betwixt them from 
day to day, so that they devised a love-day between 
Sir Walter and Sir Joce, and then all grievances were 

redressed, and the parties were reconciled, and 
before the great lords they embraced one another. 

And Joce de Dynan sent letters to Guarin de Metz, 
the father of the lad Fulk, and to Melette, his good 
lady. And Fulk was dark of countenance, and because 
of this he was called of many Fulk le Brun. 

Then Guarin and Melette, with a great retinue, 
came to the castle of Dynan, and there they were 
received with much honour and gladness, and they 
tarried there a week. And Joce spake with great 
courtesy to Guarin, and said to him, " Sire, here have 
you a son whom I have fostered for you. I trust that 
he will be a brave and valiant man, and that he will 
be your heir if he survive you. And I have two 
daughters who are my heirs, and if so it pleases you, 
I would that we may be allied by marriage, and then 
scarce shall we fear that, for any great lord in England, 
our cause shall not be maintained of right and of 
justice. And if you will grant this, I would that 
Fulk le Brun wed Hawyse, my younger daughter, 
and that he be heir to the moiety of all my lands." 
And Guarin gave him much thanks for his fair offer, 
and said that he would grant unto him all according 
to his wish. And on the morrow they sent to Here- 
ford for the Bishop de . . . . And the Bishop came, 

and with great honour he wedded them. And Jocc 
held high festival for fifteen days. And when the 
feast was ended, Sir Joce and Sir Guarin and their 
households departed to Hartland, for there would 
they sojourn awhile. And Marion de la Bruere 
feigned to be sick, and she lay in her bed, and said 
that so sick was she, that she could not move save 
with great dolour. And she remained at the castle 
of Dynan. And Joce commanded that she be well 
cared for. And for fear of de Lacy and of other folk, 
he took into his pay thirty knights, and seventy 
fighting-men and valets, and he delivered unto them 
his castle to guard until the time of his return into 
the country. And when Joce was departed, Marion 
sent a message on the morrow to Sir Arnald de Lys, 
and she prayed of him, for the great amity that was 
between them, that he would not forget the coven- 
ants made between them, and that he would come in 
all haste to speak with her at the castle of Dynan, for 
that her lord, and her lady, and the greater part of 
their household, were departed to Hartland, and that 
he would come to the self-same place where aforetime 
he had escaped from the castle. And when Sir 
Arnald had heard the message of his mistress, forth- 
with he sent back the same messenger, and prayed 

of her that for the love of him she would measure 
the height of the window by the which he had made 
good his escape from the castle, and that she would 
send back word by the same messenger what kind 
of folk, and how many, and what household, her lord 
had left behind him. And the damsel, who had no 
suspicion of treason, took a silken thread, and let it 
down from the window to the ground, and then she 
sent to Sir Arnald all the condition of the castle. 
And Sir Arnald sent back word to his mistress that 
on the fourth day, before the hour of midnight, he 
would be at the same window by the which he had 
passed out, and he prayed of her to await him there. 
And Sir Arnald de Lys caused a ladder of leather 
to be made of the same length as the silken thread 
which his mistress had sent unto him. Then went 
Sir Arnald to Sir Walter de Lacy, his lord, and re- 
counted unto him how that Fulk, the son of Guarin 
de Metz, had wedded Hawyse, the daughter of Sir 
Joce de Dynan, and how that Sir Guarin and Sir Joce 
had left a garrison in the castle of Dynan, and had 
themselves departed to Hartland to seek fighting- 
men, and there to assemble their men, and to muster 
a host, and people without number. " And," said 
he, " when all the host shall be assembled, forthwith 

will they come to Ewyas, and will burn and seize 
your lands. And if they can take your body, you 
will be cut in small pieces, and you and yours will be 
disinherited for ever. And she who sends me this 
news is well known unto you, and she knows and has 
heard the truth." 

And when Sir Walter heard these tidings, he became 
all pale with rage, and said, " Certes, I cannot believe 
that Sir Joce would do me such deceit, since we are 
reconciled, and before many did we embrace each 
other. And sorely was I vexed that our peers said 
that by me would the truce be broken, and that 
Sir Joce is held as a loyal knight." " Sire," made 
answer Sir Arnald, " you are my lord. I warn you 
of your hurt, for I know the truth from her who has 
heard speak of the matter. And tell me not at 
another time that I knew of your hurt, and would 
not warn you of it, nor that I have belied my fealty 
unto you." 

And Sir Walter became very pensive, for he knew 
none to counsel him well in the matter. And at last 
he said, " Sir Arnald, what do you counsel me ? " 
M Sire," said he, " put trust in my counsel, and you 
will do well. I myself will go, with my company, 
and by a ruse will I take the castle of Dynan. And 

when Sir Joce shall have lost his stronghold, then will 
he harry you the less, and he will give up his purpose, 
and by so much will you be avenged on him for the 
shame which ofttimes he has brought upon us. And 
consider, Sire, that, whether it be right or wrong, 
it is meet that a man avenge himself on his enemy." 

And Sir Walter yielded himself in all things to the 
counsel of Sir Arnald, and he thought that he had 
spoken to him truly in all that he had said ; but he 
lied unto him like a false knight. 

And Sir Arnald got ready his company, which was 
large, for he had more than a thousand of knights 
and of esquires and of men-at-arms. And he came to 
the castle of Dynan by night, and he caused some of 
his company to remain in the wood nigh unto White- 
cliff, and the others to embush themselves below the 
castle in the gardens. And the night was very dark, 
so that they were not perceived by the watch, nor 
by any other. And Sir Arnald took with him an 
esquire who carried the leathern ladder, and they 
went to the window where Marion awaited them. 
And when she saw them, never was she so joyful, 
and she let down a cord, and drew up the ladder, and 
made it fast to a crenelle in the wall. And safely 
and easily did Sir Arnald mount the tower, and he 

took his love in his arms and kissed her. And they 
had great joy, and went thence into another chamber 
and supped, and then went they to bed, and the 
ladder was left hanging. And the esquire who had 
carried it sought the knights and the large company 
who were ambushed in the garden of the lord and 
elsewhere, and he brought them to the ladder. And 
an hundred men, well armed, mounted by the leathern 
ladder, and descended from the tower Pendover, 
and went by the wall behind the chapel. And they 
found the watch asleep, for he seemed heavy with 
the presentiment of death. And forthwith they took 
him, and would have cast him down from the tower 
into the deep fosse but that he cried them mercy, 
and begged of them that they would let him whistle 
a note ere he died. And they granted unto him his 
request, but this he asked to the end that the knights 
within might be warned. But all in vain was it, for 
whilst he whistled, most of the knights and the men- 
at-arms were cut to pieces. And they screamed, and 
cried out in their beds, that God might have pity. 
But the companions of Sir Arnald were without pity, 
and all within were put to a cruel death, and many 
a sheet that was white at even, was all reddened with 
blood. And then they cast the watch into the deep 

fosse, and his neck was broken. And Marion de la 
Bruere lay beside her love, Sir Arnald, and knew 
naught of the treason that Sir Arnald had committed. 
And she heard great ado in the castle, and she arose and 
looked down from the castle, and heard the clamour, 
and the cries of the wounded, and she saw the armed 
knights and their white helms and hauberks. Then 
did she perceive that Sir Arnald had deceived her, 
and had betrayed her, and she began to weep very 
sadly, and said ruefully, " Alas that ever I was born 
of mother ! for, by my fault has my lord, Sir Joce, 
who has fostered me in safety, lost his castle and his 
brave men, and if I had never been, naught would have 
been lost. Alas that ever I put my trust in this knight, 
for by his cunning he has deceived me, and my lord, 
who is still more to me ! " And all weeping, Marion 
drew the sword of Sir Arnald and said, " Awaken, 
Sir Knight, for you have led a strange company into 
the castle of my lord without warrant. But if you, 
Sire, and your esquire, were lodged by me, not so 
were the others, who are here by your means. And 
since you have deceived me, you cannot rightly blame 
me if I render unto you service according to your 
desert. Never shall you make boast to any mistress 
that you may have, that by my deceit you gained the 

castle of Dynan and the country." And the knight 
arose. And Marion, with the sword which she held 
drawn in her hand, ran it through the body of the 
knight, and the knight perished forthwith. And 
Marion knew well that if she were taken, she would 
be delivered over unto a cruel death, and she knew 
not what to do. So she let herself fall from a window 
towards Linney, and brake her neck. 

And the knights who were in the castle unfastened 
the gates, and they sallied forth into the town > and 
opened the gate of Dynan towards the river, and 
made all their men to come in. And at the end of 
each street in the town they placed many men, and 
caused the town to be set on fire. And the burgesses 
and the fighting-men of the town, when they saw 
the fire, rose from their beds, some naked, and others 
clad, and they knew not what to do, for they were all 
well-nigh" mad. And the knights and the esquires 
of de Lacy fell upon them, and cut them to pieces, 
and slew of them a great number. And the bur- 
gesses could not defend themselves, neither knew they 
how, and all who were found were cut to pieces, or 
burnt in the fire. And the damsels fled by the lanes, 
and saw their fathers and their brothers lie slain in 
the way, and they fell on their knees, and prayed 

mercy, and pardon of their life. But it was in vain, 
as the history recounts. Men, women, and children, 
young and old, all were slain, either by weapon or 
by fire. 

And at last the day dawned, and then they sent 
to their lord that he, with all his force, should come 
to the castle of Dynan. And this he did, and he 
caused his banner to be raised on Pendover in sign 
that he had gained the place where once he was put 
in prison. But the town, and all that was therein, 
was burnt to ashes. 

And when the news came to Sir Joce and to Sir 
Guarin de Metz, they were sore grieved, and sad and 
sorrowful. Then they sent far and near to their 
kinsmen and their friends and their own folk, so that 
they had, within the month, seven thousand hardy 
men, well appointed. And they came to the castle of 
Key, which is entrenched upon a little hill a league's 
distance from Dynan. But Castle Key was old at 
that time, and the gate9 were rotten, for no one had 
dwelt therein for the space of an hundred years. 
For Key, the seneschal of my lord King Arthur, 
built it, and to him belonged all the country, and 
even now it bears the name, for the country folk call 
it Keyenham. And Joce, and Guarin, and Fulk le 

Brun, with their men, went on the morrow to the 
castle of Dynan, and attacked it very fiercely on all 
sides. And right bravely did Sir Walter and his 
knights defend the crenelles and the walls. And then 
Sir Walter and his Irish men sallied forth from the 
castle, and they made a fierce onset on those who 
were without. And Joce, and Guarin, and Fulk 
assailed them on all sides, and slew them in great 
numbers. And the Irish lay cut to pieces in the 
fields and the gardens, so that Sir Walter and his men 
were worsted, and he and his men retreated, and 
entered the castle, and defended the walls. And if 
they had remained without, very grievous tidings 
would they have heard. 

And Sir Joce and Sir Guarin returned to their 
lodgings and disarmed them, and when they had 
eaten, they made merry together. 

And on the morrow they attacked the castle very 
fiercely on all sides, but they could not take it. And 
all they could find without, they cut to pieces. And 
longwhile the siege endured. And thereafter it happed 
that, by the assent of a King of England, the gates of 
the castle, which were treble, were burnt and con- 
sumed by fire, the which was kindled with bacon and 
with grease, and the tower over the gate was burned 
33 D 

likewise. And the high tower which is in the third 
bailey of the castle, the which was so strong and so 
well built that at that time was no stronger or better 
known, was in great part thrown down, and the 
bailey was well-nigh all destroyed. 

And Sir Guarin fell sick, and took his leave of 
Sir Joce, and he went to Alberbury with one esquire 
only, and died. And Fulk le Brun, when his father 
was dead, came to Alberbury, and received the homage 
and the fealty of all the people who held of his father, 
and he took his leave of Melette, his mother, and of 
Hawyse, his wife, and then returned he to Sir Joce, 
and related unto him that which had happened to 
his father, at the which news was Joce sore grieved. 

And Sir Walter was sorrowful and an angered that 
he had lost his men, and he feared much to be beaten 
and vanquished, and he thought within himself very 
anxiously, and then he sent a letter to Jervard Droyn- 
doun, the Prince of Wales, as to his lord, friend, and 
kinsman, and he recounted unto him by letter how 
that Sir William Peverel, who held Maelor and Elles- 
mere, was dead, and that those lands were of the 
seigniory pertaining to Powis, and that wrongfully 
did Sir William hold them by gift of the King of 
England, and that the King would seize them for his 

own. " And, if he does so, a very bad neighbour will 
he be to you, for he loves you not. And because of 
this, Sire, come you, and challenge your right, and if 
so it pleases you, send me succour, for closely am I 
besieged in the castle of Dynan." 

And Jervard, when he heard the news, assembled 
the Welsh, and the Scotch, and the Irish, to the 
number of more than twenty thousand, and then he 
hasted to the march, and burnt the towns, and plun- 
dered the people, and so great a host had he, that the 
country could not withstand them. And Joce was 
wary, and he learnt of the approach of Jervard, and 
he and his people and Fulk armed themselves, and 
boldly did they attack Roger de Powis and Jonas his 
brother, who came in the vanguard of the host of 
Jervard, and they slew many of their men. And 
Roger and Jonas could not withstand the attack, and 
they resorted again backward. And at length came 
Jervard, armed, and his arms were or, quarterly 
gules, and in each quarter a leopard. And he at- 
tacked Sir Joce and Fulk. And longwhile did they 
defend themselves, and they slew many of their people, 
but they had so great plenty of people, that Sir Joce 
could not continue the strife, and he fell back upon 
Castle Key, at a league from Dynan. But much 

misfortune came to him, for he had lost many of his 
men. And Jervard and de Lacy, who were now 
o'erjoyed, pursued Sir Joce and Fulk, and besieged 
them in the small castle, and attacked them very 
fiercely. And for three days, without eating or 
drinking, Joce and Fulk defended their old and weak 
castle against all the host. And on the fourth day 
Sir Joce said that greater honour would it be to them 
to quit the castle, and to die on the field with honour, 
than to die of hunger with dishonour in the castle. 
And anon they sallied forth, and at their first encounter 
they slew more than three hundred knights, esquires, 
and men-at-arms. And Jervard Droyndoun and 
de Lacy and their men attacked Sir Joce and his men, 
and they defended themselves like lions, but they 
were hemmed in of so many, that no longer could 
they endure, for the horse of Sir Joce was killed, and he 
himself was sore wounded, and of his knights, some 
were taken and some were slain. Then they took 
Sir Joce and his knights, and they sent them to prison 
in the castle of Dynan, there where, aforetime, he 
was lord and master. 

And when Fulk saw Sir Joce taken and led away, 
he was well-nigh beside himself with grief and anger, 
and lie spurred his horse, and with his lance he struck 

through the body a knight who led him. Then came 
Owen Keveyloc, a bold and fierce knight, and with 
a lance of ash he struck Fulk through the hollow of 
his body, and the lance brake, and the piece remained 
in his body, but his entrails were not touched. And 
Fulk felt himself to be sorely wounded, and no longer 
could he defend himself, so he took to flight, and the 
others followed hard after him for two leagues and 
more, and when they could not come up with him, 
they turned back, and they seized all the lands which 
belonged to Fulk. And they took Guy, the son of 
Candelou de Porkington, who was constable to Fulk, 
and put him in prison at Rhuddlan, and his seven 
sons with him. 

I And in sore grief was Fulk for his lord, and having 
heard how that King Henry was dwelling at Gloucester, 
he went straightway thither. And as he neared the 
town, the King was about to divert himself in a 
meadow after supper, and he saw Fulk coming armed 
on horseback, and riding very painfully, for he was 
weak, and his steed was weary. Then said the King, 
" Let us wait, for now shall we hear news." And 
Fulk came up to the King on his horse, for he could 
not dismount, and he told unto the King the whole 
of the affair. And the King rolled his eyes very 

fiercely, and said that he would avenge himself of 
such evil-doers in his realm. And he asked of him 
who he was, and who was his father. And Fulk 
recounted unto the King where he was born, and of 
what people, and how that he was the son of Guarin 
de Metz. " Fair son," said the King, " you are very 
welcome to me, for you are of my blood, and I will 
aid you." And the King caused his wounds to be 
dressed. And he sent for Melette, his mother, and 
for Hawyse, his wife, and the rest of their household, 
and kept them with him, and caused Hawyse and 
Melette to dwell in the chambers of the Queen. 
And Hawyse was with child, and when her time was 
come, she was delivered, and they caused the child to 
be named Fulk. And he, in his day, was greatly 
renowned, and of good right was this so, for peerless 
was he in strength and goodness. 

And when Fulk le Brun was healed of his wounds, 
King Henry sent a letter to Sir Walter de Lacy, and 
he commanded him, on pain of life and limb, that he 
should deliver up to him his knight Joce de Dynan, 
and his knights, whom wrongfully he kept in prison, 
and if this he did not do, then would he come seek 
them himself, and would do such justice that all 
England should hear speak of it. And when Sir 

Walter had heard the message, he was sore afraid, 
and he delivered up Sir Joce and his knights, and 
furnished them with raiment, and mounted them 
honourably, and led them through the postern towards 
the river of Teme, and beyond the ford of Teme, and 
beyond Whitecliff, until they were come unto the 
highway to Gloucester. And when Sir Joce was 
come to Gloucester, the King received him right 
gladly, and made promise to him of law and justice. 
And Joce sojourned with the King so long as it pleased 
him, and then he took leave of him, and went to 
Lambourne, and dwelt there. And anon he died, 
and was interred there. And may God have mercy 
on his soul ! 

And King Henry called Fulk unto him, and made 
him constable of all his host, and he gave into his 
command all the forces of his land, that he should 
take men enough, and go into the march, and drive 
Jervard Droyndoun and his men out of the march. 
Thus was Fulk made master over all, for he was strong 
and courageous. And the King remained at Glou- 
cester, for he ailed somewhat, and scarce could he 
bestir himself. And Jervard had seized the whole 
march from Chester unto Worcester, and he had 
dispossessed all the barons of the march. And Sir 

Fulk, with the host of the King, made many a fierce 
assault on Jervard, and in a battle nigh unto Hereford, 
at Wormeslow, he forced him to flee, and to abandon 
the field. But ere that came to pass, many were 
slain on both sides. And for four years fierce and 
grievous war endured betwixt Sir Fulk and the Prince, 
until, at the request of the King of France, there was 
held at Shrewsbury a love-day between the King and 
Jervard the Prince, and they embraced one another, 
and were reconciled. And the Prince restored to 
the barons of the march all the lands which he had 
taken from them, and to the King he restored Elles- 
mere, but for no gold would he render up White 
Town and Maelor. " Fulk," said the King, " since 
you have lost White Town and Maelor, I give unto 
you, in place thereof, Alleston, and all the fief that 
belongs to it, to hold for ever." And Fulk thanked 
him with fervour. And to Lewis, the son of Jervard, 
a child of seven years, King Henry gave the little 
Joan, his daughter, and for marriage gift he gave 
unto them Ellesmere, and many other lands, and 
Lewis he took with him to London. And the 
Prince Jervard, with his retinue, took leave of the 
King, and went into Wales, and he gave White 
Town and Maelor to Roger de Powis. And there- 

after Roger gave Maelor to Jonas, his younger 

Now have you heard how that Sir Joce de Dynan 
and his daughters Sibylle, the elder, and Hawyse, 
the younger, were dispossessed of the castle and fiefs 
of Dynan, which Sir Walter de Lacy held wrongfully. 
But thereafter was the town of Dynan repaired and 
restored, and it was called Ludlow. And also have 
you heard how that Sir Fulk, the son of Guarin de 
Metz, was dispossessed of White Town and Maelor. 
And anon was Sibylle, the elder sister, wedded with 
Payn, a very valiant knight, the son of John. 

And so long time had Fulk and Hawyse dwelt with 
the King, that they had five sons, Fulk, and William, 
and Philip the Red, and John, and Alan. And the 
King Henry had four sons, Henry, and Richard Cceur 
de Lion, and John, and Geoffrey, who was afterwards 
Count of Brittany. And Henry was crowned whilst 
yet his father lived, but h e died before his father. And 
after the death of his father, Richard was crowned, 
and after Richard, John, his brother, who all his life 
was evil, and perverse, and envious. And young 
Fulk was brought up with the four sons of King Henry, 
and much beloved was he of them all save John, for oft 
did he quarrel with John. And it chanced on a day 
4 1 

that John and Fulk were alone in a chamber playing 
at the chess. And John seized the chessboard, and 
gave Fulk a heavy blow. And Fulk felt himself hurt, 
and he raised his foot, and kicked John in the chest, 
so that his head struck against the wall, and he became 
all powerless, and fell down senseless. And Fulk was 
sore afraid, but glad was he that no one was in the 
chamber save themselves alone, and he rubbed the 
ears of John, and he recovered from his faintness, and 
went to the King, his father, and made sore plaint. 
And the King said, " Silence, fellow, you are ever 
quarrelling. If Fulk has done by you aught but what 
is good, it must needs have been by your own desert." 
And he called his master, and caused him to beat him 
soundly and well, because of his plaint. 

And John was sore an angered against Fulk, so that 
never after could he bear good-will toward him. 
And when King Henry, the father, was dead, then 
reigned King Richard, and because of his loyalty, 
dearly did he love Fulk le Brun Fitz-Warine, and he 
called before him at Winchester the five sons of 
Fulk le Brun, the little Fulk, and Philip the Red, and 
William, and John, and Alan, and their cousin Baldwin 
de Hodnet, and he equipped them very richly, and 
dubbed them knights. And the young Sir Fulk and 

his brothers, with their company, passed the sea, for 
to seek praise and renown. And no tournament or 
joust did he hear speak of, but he would be there. And 
he was commended of all, and the people said for the 
most part that he was peerless in strength and in 
goodness and in courage, for such grace had he, that 
he came to no combat where he was not held and 
reputed for the best. And it came to pass that Fulk 
le Brun, their father, died. And King Richard sent 
his letters to Sir Fulk that he should come into England 
to receive his lands, for that his father was dead. 
And sorely grieved were Fulk and his brothers that 
Fulk le Brun, their good father, was dead. And they 
returned to London to King Richard, who was much 
pleased with them, and gave over to them all the 
lands of which Fulk le Brun died possessed. And the 
King made him ready for the Holy Land, and he com- 
mitted all the march into the keeping of Sir Fulk. 
And much did the King love and cherish him for his 
loyalty, and for the great renown which he had, and 
Fulk was in favour with the King all the life long of 
King Richard. 

But after his death, John, the brother of King 
Richard, was crowned King of England. Then he 
sent to Sir Fulk that he should come to him to talk 

and to treat of divers matters touching the march, 
and he said that he would go visit the march. And 
he went to the Castle Baldwin, the which is now called 
Montgomery. And when Moris, the son of Roger 
de Powis, the lord of White Town, knew that the 
King was on his way to the march, he sent to the 
King a fine and fair steed, and a gerfalcon all white. 
And the King gave him much thanks for the gift. 
Then came Moris to talk with the King, and the 
King begged of him to remain, and to be of his council, 
and he made him guardian of all the march. And 
when Moris saw his time, he spake unto the King, 
and prayed of him, if so it pleased him, that he would 
confirm unto him by his charter the honour of White 
Town, to him and to his heirs, as aforetime King 
Henry, his father, had confirmed it unto Roger de 
Powis, his father. And the King knew well that 
Sir Fulk had rightful claim to White Town, and he 
called to mind the blow which Fulk had erewhile 
given him, and he thought that now would he be 
avenged of him. And he consented that whatsoever 
Moris should put in writing, that would he put his seal 
unto. And for the doing of this Moris made promise 
to him of an hundred pounds of silver. 
And there was, hard by, a knight who had heard 

all that the King and Moris had spoken, and he went 
in haste to Sir Fulk, and told unto him that by his 
charter the King would confirm to Sir Moris the 
lands which of right were his. And Fulk and his four 
brothers came before the King, and they besought of 
him that they might have the common law, and the 
lands to which they had claim and right as the heritage 
of Fulk. And they prayed of the King that he would 
receive from them an hundred pounds on condition that 
he would grant unto them the decree of his court in 
respect of gain and loss. And the King made answer 
to them that what he had made grant of to Sir Moris, 
that would he hold to, whosoever might be offended, 
or who not. Then spake Sir Moris to Sir Fulk, and 
said, " Sir Knight, very foolish are you to challenge 
my lands. If that you say that you have right to 
White Town, you lie, and if that we were not in the 
presence of the King, this would I prove on your 
body." And without more ado, Sir William, the 
brother of Fulk, sprang forward, and with his fist 
he struck Sir Moris between the eyes, so that he 
became all bloody. And the knights came between 
them, so that there was no more hurt done. Then 
said Sir Fulk to the King, " Sir King, you are my liege 
lord, and I am bound by fealty to you the whiles I 

am in your service, and as long as I hold lands of 
you, and you ought to maintain my rights, but you 
fail me in my rights and the common law. Never 
was he a good king who, in his courts, denied the 
law unto his free tenants. Wherefore I relinquish 
my homage to you." And with these words he 
departed from the Court, and went to his hostel. 
And forthwith did Fulk and his brothers arm them- 
selves, and Baldwin de Hodnet likewise. And when 
they were gone half a league from the city, there came 
after them fifteen knights, well mounted and armed, 
the strongest and the most valiant of the household 
of the King, and they made command for them to 
turn back, and said that they had made promise to 
the King of their heads. And Sir Fulk turned him and 
said, " Good Sirs, very foolish were you when you 
made promise to give that which you cannot have." 
And then they contended together with lances and 
with swords, so that forthwith four of the most 
valiant of the knights of the King were slain, and all 
the others were wounded to the point of death, save 
one who perceived the peril, and took to flight. 
And he came to the city, and the King asked of him 
if Warine was taken. " No," said he, " nor nothing 
hurt. He and all his comrades are departed, and we 

were all slain, save me, who with sore difficulty am 
escaped." Then said the King, " Where is Gerard 
de France, and Piers d' Avignon, and Sir Amis the 
Marquis ? " " Sire, they are slain." And ere long 
there came ten knights, all afoot, for Sir Fulk had 
taken their steeds. And some of the knights had 
lost their noses, and some their chins, and all were 
vanquished. Then did the King swear a great oath 
that he would be avenged of them and of all their 

And Fulk came to Alberbury, and there he re- 
counted to Dame Hawyse, his mother, how they had 
fared at Winchester. And Fulk took great treasure 
from his mother, and went, he and his brothers, to 
his cousins in Brittany, and there they sojourned as 
long as it pleased them. And King John laid hands 
on all the lands that Fulk had in England, and did 
great hurt to all his kinsmen. 

And Fulk and his four brothers, and Audulf de 
Bracy, his cousin, and Baldwin de Hodnet, his cousin, 
took leave of their friends and their cousins in Brittany, 
and came into England. And by day they reposed 
them in woods and on moors, and by night they 
roamed up and down and pillaged, for they dared 
not await the King, as no force had they to with- 

stand him. And ere long they came to Huggeford, 
to Sir Walter de Huggeford, who had wedded Dame 
Vileine, the daughter of Guarin de Metz, but her 
right name was Emeline, and she was aunt to Sir Fulk. 
And afterward Fulk went on his way to Alberbury. 
And when he was come there, he was told of the 
country folk that his mother was buried, for the which 
Fulk made great lamentation, and most pitifully did 
he pray for her soul. 

And Sir Fulk and his fellows went that night into 
a forest which is called Babbing, the which is nigh 
unto White Town, to espy Moris Fitz-Roger. And 
ere long there came a valet of the household of Moris, 
and he perceived them, and turned back and re- 
counted unto Moris that which he had seen. And 
Moris armed himself very richly, and took his green 
shield with two boars of beaten gold, a bordure argent 
charged with fleurs-de-lys azure. And he had in his 
company the nine sons of Guy de la Montaigne, and 
the three sons of Aaron de Clairfontaine, so that there 
were thirty well mounted, and five hundred men afoot. 
And when Fulk saw Moris, he came forth in haste 
from the forest. And between them there was begun 
a hard contest, and there was Moris wounded through 
the shoulder, and many knights and men afoot were 

slain. And at last Moris fled towards his castle, and 
Fulk pursued after him, and thought to strike him on 
the helm as he fled, but the blow descended upon 
the buttock of his steed. And at last came Morgan 
Fitz-Aaron, and shot from the castle, and struck 
Fulk through the leg with an arrow. And Fulk was 
sore grieved that he could not avenge himself as he 
would on Sir Moris, and he took no thought for the 
wound in his leg. And Sir Moris made his plaint to 
the King that Sir Fulk was come again into England, 
and that he had wounded him through the shoulder. 
And the King became marvellously incensed, and 
he commanded that an hundred knights with their 
company go through all England and seek and take 
Fulk, and deliver him over unto the King alive or 
dead. And they should have all their costs of the 
King, and if they could take him, then would the 
King give them lands and rich fees. And the knights 
went through all England to seek Sir Fulk, but there 
where they heard that Sir Fulk was, there would they 
not go for any price, for they feared him beyond 
measure, some for the love they bear him, and others 
for fear of his strength and his noble knighthood, 
lest hurt or death might happen to them because of 
his strength and his boldness. 

49 E 

And Sir Fulk and his company came to the forest 
of Bradene, and there they dwelt in secret, for they 
dared not do so openly because of the King. Then 
came from abroad ten burgher merchants, who had 
bought with the money of the King of England very 
costly cloths, and furs, anc^ spices, and gloves for the 
persons of the King and Queen of England. And 
they carried them past the forest to the King, and 
there followed thirty-four men-at-arms to guard the 
treasure of the King. And when Fulk perceived the 
merchants, he called to him his brother John, and 
told him to go talk with these people, and inquire of 
them of what country they were. And John struck 
his steed with his spurs, and he came up with the 
merchants, and demanded of them what folk they 
were, and from what land. And a man, hasty of 
speech, and proud, and fierce, sprang forward, and 
asked of him what business he had to make inquiry 
what folk they were. And John asked of them to come 
in love to speak with his lord in the forest, and if they 
would not, then should they come in spite of them- 
selves. And then one of the fighting-men sprang for- 
ward and dealt John a great blow with a sword. And 
John struck him back on the head, so that he fell to 
the ground senseless. 


Then came Sir Fulk and his company, and fell upon 
the merchants, and they defended themselves with 
great vigour. And in the end they surrendered 
themselves, for to this were they compelled by force. 
And Fulk led them into the forest, and they told 
unto him that they were the merchants of the King. 
And when Fulk heard this, right glad was he, and he 
said to them, "Sir Merchants, if you lose these goods, 
on whom will the loss turn ? Tell me truly." 
" Sire," said they, " if we lose them by our own 
cowardice, or by our own bad keeping, then will the 
loss turn on us, but if we lose them in other manner, 
through peril of the sea, or through the violence of 
man, then will the loss turn upon the King." " Speak 
you truly ? " " Yes, Sire," made they answer. And 
when Sir Fulk heard that the loss would be the King's, 
he caused the rich cloth, and the rich fur, to be measured 
by his lance, and he clothed all those who were with 
him, both of high and low degree, with the rich cloth, 
and gave unto each according to his rank. And every 
one had ample measure. And of the rest of the goods 
each took what he would. 

And when even was come, and the merchants had 
well eaten, he commended them to God, and prayed 
of them to salute the King in the name of Fulk 

Fitz-Warine, who much thanked him for these fine 
clothes, and never would Fulk, nor any of his, of all 
the time that they were outlawed, do harm to any 
save to the King and to his knights. And when the 
merchants and their fighting-men came wounded and 
maimed before the King, and recounted unto the 
King the message of Fulk, and how that. Fulk had 
taken his goods, nigh mad went he with rage, And 
he caused it to be cried throughout the kingdom, that 
whosoever would bring Fulk, alive or dead, to him 
would he give one thousand pounds of silver, and he 
would give to him, beside, all the lands in England 
which belonged to Fulk. 

And Fulk went thence, and came into the weald of 
Kent, and he left his knights in the thick of the forest, 
and went all alone on horse along the highway. And 
he met a fellow singing right merrily, and he had 
decked his head with a chaplet of red roses. And 
Fulk prayed of him that of love he would give him 
the chaplet, and if he had need of it, anon would he 
give it back to him. " Sire," said the fellow, " very 
sparing of his goods is he who would not bestow a 
chaplet of roses at the request of a knight." And he 
gave the chaplet to Fulk, and he gave to him for 
recompense twenty sols. And the fellow knew him 
5 2 

weil, for often had he seen him. And the fellow 
came to Canterbury, and there he met the hundred 
knights who had sought Fulk through all England, 
and he said to them, " Whence come you, my Lords ? 
Have you found him whom you seek by order of our 
lord the King, and for your advancement ? " " No," 
replied they. " What will you give unto me," said 
he, " an I take you there where I have seen him, and 
have heard him speak ? " And they gave and made 
promise of so much to the fellow, that he told unto 
them where he had seen him, and how that he had 
bestowed upon him twenty sols for the chaplet which 
he had given unto him for naught. 

And the hundred knights caused all the country to 
be summoned in haste, the knights, the esquires, and 
the fighting-men, and they beset the forest all around, 
and set beaters and stops, as though they were bent 
on the chase, and they put old folk and others with 
horns all over the meadows, to raise the cry upon Fulk 
and his companions when they should come forth 
from the forest. 

And Fulk was in the forest, and knew naught of the 

affair. And ere long he heard a knight sound a great 

bugle, and he had suspicion, and he commanded his 

brothers, William, and Philip, and John, and Alan, 


to mount their steeds. And his brothers mounted 
forthwith. And Audulf de Bracy, and Baldwin de 
Hodnet, and John Malveysin, mounted likewise. 
And soon were the three brothers of Cosham, Thomas, 
and Pierce, and William, who were good crossbowmen, 
and all the rest of Fulk's company, ready for the 

And Fulk and his companions issued out of the 
forest, and they saw, foremost of all the others, the 
hundred knights who had sought them throughout 
England. And they fell upon them, and they slew 
Gilbert de Mountferrant, and Jordan de Colchester, 
and many other knights of the company. And they 
passed through the midst of the hundred knights, 
and then they returned amongst them, and struck 
them down with their swords. But at length there 
came to their aid so many knights and esquires and 
burgesses and fighting-men, and folk without number, 
that Fulk perceived right well that he could not 
endure the combat, so he returned to the forest, but 
his brother John was wounded in the head through 
his helm. But ere they turned back to the forest, 
many brave knights and esquires and fighting-men 
were cut to pieces. And Fulk and his companions 
struck their steeds with their spurs, and fled. And on 

all sides did the people raise the hue and cry upon 
them, and pursue them everywhere with a hue and 
cry. And at length they came to a path, and saw 
but one raising the hue and cry with a horn. And one 
of the company struck him through the body with an 
arrow, and thereupon he gave up the hue and cry. 

And Fulk and his companions quitted their horses, 
and all afoot they fled to an abbey which was nigh. 
And when the porter espied them, he ran to shut the 
gates. But Alan was very tall, and forthwith he 
climbed over the walls, and the porter began to flee. 
" Stay," cried Alan. And he ran after him, and took 
the keys from him, and with the staff on which hung 
the keys, he struck him a blow which of necessity 
stopped his flight. And Alan let in all his brothers. 
And Fulk took the habit of an old monk, and forth- 
with garbed himself in it, and he took a great crutch 
in his hand, and went forth out of the gate, and caused 
the gate to be shut after him, and he went on his way. 
And then he went limping on one foot, and with his 
body propped up on the great crutch. And anon 
there came knights and fighting-men, with much 
people. And then said a knight, " Old Sir Monk, 
have you seen any armed knights pass by here ? " 
" Yes, Sire. May God repay them the hurt they 

have done me ! " " What have they done to you ? " 
" Sire," said he, " I am old, and no longer can I aid 
me, so feeble am I. And there came seven on horse- 
back, and nigh fifteen afoot, and for that I could not 
get me hastily out of their way, no care took they for 
me, but they let their horses run against me, and little 
did they reck of what they did." " Say no more," 
said he, "this very day shall you be venged." And the 
knights, and all the rest, went forward in haste to 
pursue Fulk, and soon were they the distance of a 
league from the abbey. And Sir Fulk stood upright 
to see more. And ere long there came Sir Girard 
de Malf£e and ten companions, knights well mounted, 
for they were come from abroad. And they brought 
with them horses of worth. And then said Girard 
mockingly, " Here is a stout and strong monk, and he 
has a belly large enough to hold two gallons." And 
the brothers of Fulk were within the gate, and had 
heard and seen all the doings of Fulk. And without 
more ado, Fulk raised the great crutch, and struck 
Sir Girard under the ear, so that he fell to the earth 
quite stunned. And the brothers of Fulk, when they 
saw this, sallied forth by the gate, and took the ten 
knights, and Sir Girard, and all their harness, and 
bound them fast in the lodge of the porter, and they 

took all their harness, and their good steeds, and went 
their way, and never did they stay them until they 
were come to Huggeford. And there was John healed 
of his wound. 

And after that they had sojourned there awhile, 
there came a messenger who longwhile had sought 
Sir Fulk, and he saluted him on the part of Hubert, 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, and piayed of him 
that he would come in haste and speak with him. 
And Fulk took his people, and came nigh unto Canter- 
bury, in the forest where afore he had been. And 
there he left all his company save his brother William. 

And Fulk and William attired themselves as mer- 
chants, and came to Canterbury to the Bishop Hubert. 
And the Archbishop, Hubert le Botiler, said to them, 
" Good sons, you are very welcome to me. Weil 
know you that Sir Theobald le Botiler, my brother, 
has been called of God, and that he had wedded 
Dame Maude de Caus, a lady very rich, and the fairest 
in all England. And so much does King John desire 
her because of her beauty, that scarce can she guard 
herself trom him. And she is within, and you shall 
see her. And 1 pray of you, dear friend Fulk, and I 
bid you on my benison, that you take her to wife." And 
Fulk saw her, and well knew he that she was fair, and 

good, and of good repute, and that she had in Ireland 
strong castles, and cities, and lands, and rents, and 
much homage. And with the assent of his brother 
William, and by the counsel of the Archbishop 
Hubert, he wedded Dame Maude de Caus. And 
Fulk remained there two days, and then took his leave 
of the bishop, and left his wife there, and he went 
back to the wood to his companions, and he told unto 
them of all that he had done. And they mocked 
him, and made game of him, and called him " hus- 
band," and they asked of him whither he would take 
the fair lady, whether to castle or to wood, and they 
made merry together. And everywhere they did 
great hurt to the King, but to none other, save only 
to those who were openly their enemies. 

And there dwelt in the march of Scotland a knight 
who was called Robert Fitz-Sampson, and he ofttimes 
received Sir Fulk and his fellows, and lodged them in 
great honour. And he was a man of great wealth. 
And his wife was called Dame Anable, and she was a 
very courteous lady. And at this time there was in 
the country a knight who was called Piers de Bruvile. 
And this Piers used to gather together all the wild 
sons of the gentlefolk of the country, and other 
ribalds, and he went up and down the country, and 

slew and robbed loyal folk, merchants and others. 
And this Piers, when he went with his company to 
rob others, caused himself to be called Fulk Fitz- 
Warine, by the which Fulk and his companions were 
sorely blamed for that of which they were not guilty. 
And Fulk, who, for fear of the King, could not remain 
too long time in one place, came by night into the 
march of Scotland, and he came very nigh unto the 
court of Sir Robert Fitz-Sampson. And he saw a 
great light within the court, and he heard talking 
within, and his name to be oft mentioned, and he 
made his companions to halt without. And Fulk 
himself boldly entered the court, and then the hall, 
and there he saw Piers de Bruvile and the other knights 
seated at supper, and Robert Fitz-Sampson and his 
good lady, and the household, were bound, and cast 
on one side of the hall. And Sir Piers and his com- 
panions were all masked, and all who served within 
kneeled before Sir Piers, and called him their lord 
Sir Fulk. And the lady, who lay bound near her 
lord in the hall, said very pitifully, " Ha ! Sir Fulk, by 
God's mercy, never did I do you hurt, and I have 
always loved you to my power." And Sir Fulk stood 
up, for he had heard all that she had said, and when he 
heard the lady speak, who had done to him great 

kindness, for naught in the world could he longer 
contain himself. And, all alone, he stepped forward 
with his sword drawn in his hand, and said, " Peace, 
now ! I command of all you whom I see here that 
no one stir a whit." And he swore a great oath that 
if any one made so bold as to stir, him would he hew 
into small pieces. And Piers and his companions felt 
themselves to be foiled. " Now," said Fulk, " which 
among you makes himself to be called Fulk r " " Sire," 
said Piers, " I am a knight, and I am called Fulk." 
" By God," said he, " arise quickly, Sir Fulk, and bind 
well and fast all your companions, and if not, you first 
shall lose your head." And Piers was much affrighted 
with the menace, and he arose and unbound the lord, 
and the lady, and the rest of the household, and bound 
well and fast all his companions. And when all were 
bound, Fulk made him to smite off the heads of all 
whom he had bound. And when that he had smitten 
off the heads of all his companions, Fulk said, " You 
craven knight, who make yourself to be called Fulk, 
in so doing, you He. I am Fulk, and that you know 
right well, and I will repay you in that you have 
falsely accused me of robbery." And forthwith he 
smote off his head, and when he had done this lie 
called his companions, and they supped there, and 

were well pleased. And thus did Sir Fulk save Sir 
Robert and all his treasure, so that naught was lost. 

And ofttimes did the King do great hurt to Sir 
Fulk. And Sir Fulk, though he was strong and brave, 
was also prudent and crafty, for oft did the King and 
his people pursue Sir Fulk by the footprints of his 
horses, and Sir Fulk oft caused his horses to be shod, 
and the shoes to be reversed, so that the King was 
deceived and tricked in the pursuit. And many a 
hard combat did Sir Fulk endure ere he won his 

And Sir Fulk took his leave of Sir Robert Fitz- 
Sampson, and went his way to Alberbury, and he took 
up his abode in a forest nigh unto the river. And Fulk 
called John de Rampaigne. "John," said he, "enough 
do you know of minstrelsy and of jugglery. Dare you 
to go to White Town, and to play before Moris Fitz- 
Roger, and to spy out his affairs?" "Yea," answered 
John. And he crushed a herb and put it in his mouth, 
and greatly did his face begin to enlarge and to swell, 
and it became all discoloured, so that even his com- 
panions scarce knew him. And John dressed himself 
very poorly, and he took in his hand his sack with his 
implements of jugglery, and a great staff, and he came 
to White Town, and told unto the porter that he 

was a juggler. And the porter led him before Sir 
Moris Fitz-Roger, and Moris asked of him where he 
was born. " Sire," said he, " in the march of Scot- 
land." " And what news bring you ? " " Sire, 
naught do I know save of Sir Fulk Fitz-Warine, who 
has been slain in a robbery that he made at the house 
of Sir Robert Fitz-Sampson." " Say you truly ? " 
" Aye, certes," made he answer. " Thus say all the 
country folk." " Minstrel," said he, " for your news 
I will give you this cup of fine silver." And the 
minstrel took the cup, and made much thanks to his 
good lord. And John de Rampaigne was very ill- 
favoured in face and in body, and by reason of this 
the ribalds of the household mocked him, and treated 
him roughly, and they pulled him by his hair and his 
feet. And he raised his staff, and struck a ribald on 
the head, so that his brains flew out in the midst of the 
place. " Wretched scoundrel," said the lord, " what 
have you done ? " " Sire," said he, " help it I could 
not. God have mercy on me, I have a very grievous 
malady, the which you can see by my face which is so 
swollen. And at certain times does this malady take 
entire hold of me, so that I have not the power 
wherewith to control myself." And Moris swore 
a great oath that if it were not for the news which 

he had brought, forthwith would he have had his 
head smitten off. And the minstrel hastened to 
depart thence, for the time of his sojourn seemed long 
unto him. And he returned to Fulk, and recounted 
unto him word by word how he had proceeded, and 
he told how that he had heard in the court that 
Sir Moris, and his fifteen knights, and his household, 
would go, on the morrow, to the castle of Shrewsbury, 
for that he was keeper of all the march. And when 
Fulk knew that, right glad was he, and his companions 

And Fulk arose early on the morrow, and armed 
himself in all haste, and his companions likewise. 
And Moris came towards Shrewsbury, and fifteen 
knights with him, and the four sons of Guy Fitz- 
Candelou de Porkington, and the rest of his household. 
And when Fulk saw him, right glad was he, and he 
was much an angered with him by cause that he kept 
his heritage from him by force. And Moris looked 
towards the pass of Nesse, and he saw a shield quarterly 
gules, per fess indented argent, and by his arms he 
knew that it was Fulk. " Now I know well," said 
Moris, " that jugglers are liars, for there is Fulk 

And Moris and his knights were very brave, and 

they attacked Fulk and his companions bravely, and 
called them thieves, and said unto them that before 
vespers their heads should be placed on the high 
tower of Shrewsbury. And Fulk and his brothers 
defended themselves with great vigour, and there Sir 
Moris and his fifteen knights, and the four sons of 
Guy Fitz-Candelou de Porkington, were slain, and 
by so many the less had Fulk enemies. 

And from there Fulk and his companions went on 
their way towards Rhuddlan to have speech with 
Sir Lewis, the Prince, who had wedded Joan, the 
daughter of King Henry, and sister to King John, for 
the Prince and Sir Fulk and his brothers were nur- 
tured together at the Court of King Henry. And 
greatly did the Prince rejoice at the coming of Sir 
Fulk, and he asked of him what accord there was 
betwixt the King and him. " None, Sire," said Fulk, 
" for by naught can I be reconciled, and by reason of 
this, Sire, I am come to you, and to my good lady, to 
have your goodwill." "Certes," said the Prince, "my 
goodwill do I grant and give unto you, and from me 
shall you have good welcome. The King of England 
knows not how to have good understanding with you, 
or with me, or any other." And Fulk made answer, 
" Much do I give you thanks, Sire, for much trust 

have I in you and in your great loyalty. And since 
you have granted to me your goodwill, one thing else 
will I tell you. Of a truth, Sire, Moris Fitz-Roger is 
dead, for I have slain him." And when the Prince 
learned that Moris was dead, he was much an angered, 
and he said that if he had not given unto him his 
goodwill, him would he have had drawn and hanged, 
for that Moris was his cousin. Then came the good 
lady, and she made the Prince and Sir Fulk to be 
reconciled, so that they embraced each other, and all 
anger was put aside. 

And at this time there was great discord betwixt 
the Prince Lewis and Gwenwynwyn, the son of Owen 
Keveyloc. And to this Gwenwynwyn pertained great 
part of the lands of Powis, and he was very proud and 
haughty and fierce, and in naught would he submit 
to the Prince, but made great havoc in his land. And 
by force of arms the Prince had wholly destroyed 
the castle of Metheyn, and had taken possession of 
Mochnant, Lannerth, and other lands which belonged 
to Gwenwynwyn. And the Prince committed to 
Fulk the charge of all his lands, and he commanded 
him that he should march against Gwenwynwyn and 
lay waste all his lands. And Fulk was prudent and 
heedful, and he knew well that the Prince was in the 

wrong. " For the sake of God, Sire, grant me 
pardon," said he, " but if you do that which you 
have devised, much will you be blamed of all in 
foreign lands. And, Sire, if so it pleases you, be not 
an angered if that I tell you that all say that you have 
wronged him. And therefore, Sire, for the sake of 
God, pardon him, and then will he return to you at 
your pleasure, and serve you with goodwill. And you 
know not when you may have need of your barons." 
And so much did Fulk discourse with the Prince, and 
plead with him, that the Prince and Gwenwynwyn were 
reconciled, and the Prince restored to him all the lands 
which before he had taken from him. 

And King John was at Winchester. And at length 
the news came to him that Fulk had slain Moris Fitz- 
Roger, and that he was dwelling with Lewis, the 
Prince, who had wedded Joan, his sister. And he 
became very pensive, and for longwhile he uttered 
never a word. Then he said, " Ah, holy Mary ! I am 
the King, and rule over England, and I am Duke of 
Anjou and of Normandy, and all Ireland is within my 
seigniory, and, for all that I may give, no one can I 
find in all my kingdom who will avenge me of the hurt 
and the shame that Fulk has done unto me. But I 
will not fail to be avenged of the Prince." And he 

caused to be summoned to Shrewsbury all his earls 
and his barons and his other knights, that on a certain 
day they should be at Shrewsbury with all their 
followers. And when they were come to Shrewsbury, 
Lewis was warned of his friends that King John 
would stir up much strife against him, and he called 
Fulk, and showed unto him all the matter. And Fulk 
caused to assemble at the Castle Balaham, in Pentlyn, 
thirty thousand good men, and Gwenwynwyn, the 
son of Owen, came with his men, who were strong and 
bold. And Fulk was well skilled in war, and he knew 
well all the paths by the which King John must needs 
pass. And the way was very narrow, and it was 
bounded by woods and by marsh. And he could not 
pass save by the highway. And the way is called the 
Ford of Gymele. And Fulk and Gwenwynwyn and 
their men came to the pass, and they caused a deep 
and broad ditch to be digged across the highway; and 
they made the ditch to be rilled with water, so that, 
because of the ditch and the marsh, none could pass 
by. And beyond the ditch they set up a pale very 
well fortified, and the ditch may still be seen. 

And then came King John with all his host to the 
ford, and he thought to pass in safety. And on the 
other side they espied more than ten thousand armed 

knights who" guarded the passage. And Fulk and his 
comrades had passed the ford by a privy path the 
which they had made, and they were on that side 
where was the King, and Gwenwynwyn and many 
other knights with them. And the King pointed out 
Fulk, and the knights of the King assailed Fulk on all 
sides, but much to their hurt was it that they could 
not come at him save in front by the causey. And 
Fulk and his comrades defended them like lions, and 
ofttimes were they unhorsed, and ofttimes re- 
mounted. And many of the knights of the King were 
slain, and Gwenwynwyn was sorely wounded in the 
head through his helm. And when Fulk saw that 
no longer could he and his men hold their ground 
without the ditch, then they returned by the privy 
path, and defended the pale and the ditch, and they 
let fly and cast quarrels and other darts upon the 
King's men, and they slew many, and wounded people 
without number. And this fierce and hard fight endured 
till even. And when the King saw so many of his 
men slain and wounded, so much was he grieved, that 
he knew not what to do. And then he went back to 

And King John was a man without conscience. He wicked and perverse and wanton, and was hated of 

all good folk. And if he could hear of any fair lady 
or damsel, wife or daughter of earl or of baron, or 
of any other, he desired her for his pleasure, deceiving 
her by promises or by gifts, or else carrying her off by 
force. And for that he was most hated, and by reason 
of this many of the great lords of England had re- 
nounced their homage to the King, and because of 
this the King was the less feared. 

And John Lestrange, lord of Knokyn and of Ruton, 
held always with the King, and did hurt to the 
Prince's men. And for this the Prince caused the 
castle of Ruton to be demolished, and he took and 
imprisoned his men, at the which John was sore vexed. 
And the Prince came to the Castle Balaham, and 
called Fulk, and gave and restored unto him all 
White Town, his heritage, and Estrat and Dinorben. 
And Fulk thanked him greatly, and he took those he 
would, and went to White Town, and he caused the 
castle to be fortified, and everywhere repaired. 

And John Lestrange went to the King, and told 
unto him how that Fulk had caused him great loss of 
his men, and had destroyed his castle of Ruton, and 
he besought of the King (for he was in favour with 
him) that he would aid him with his forces, and would 
avenge him right well of Sir Fulk and his men. And 
6 9 

the King called Sir Henry de Audley, who was lord 
of Red Castle and of its fiefs, and was the first to come 
by it, and he commanded him to take ten thousand 
knights of the most valiant in England, and that in all 
things he and his knights should be obedient unto 
Sir John Lestrange. And Sir Henry and Sir John 
and their knights set out for White Town, and they 
slew by the way all they found, men and women, and 
they pillaged the country. And everywhere there 
was lamentation. And Fulk was at White Town, 
and there he entertained a fair company, for that he 
was but now entered into possession of his lands. 
And there were there from Wales seven hundred 
knights and many fighting-men. And when the news 
came to Fulk that Sir John and Sir Henry were 
coming nigh unto those parts, forthwith they armed 
themselves, and went privily to the pass of Mudle. 
And when Sir John saw Sir Fulk, he spurred his steed, 
and he struck Sir Fulk with his lance, and it flew into 
small pieces. And Fulk struck Sir John back in the 
middle of his face, through his helm, and the cut was 
to be seen all his life, and Sir John fell all flat on the 
earth. And Sir John was very valiant, and he sprang 
up quickly on to his feet, and he cried out in a loud 
voice, " Now, Sir Knights, all at Fulk ! " And Fulk 

made answer fiercely, " Certes," said he, " and Fulk 
at all ! " Then the knights on both sides hurtled 
together. And many did Fulk and Sir Thomas Corbet 
and his other comrades slay. And Alan Fitz-Warine, 
and Philip his brother, were wounded. And when 
Fulk saw his brothers wounded, he was nigh mad with 
rage. And Fulk put himself in the thick of the fight, 
and whomsoever he reached could have no delivery 
from death. And that day Sir Fulk had but seven 
hundred knights, and the others were ten thousand 
and more. And because of this, Fulk could not 
prevail in the battle, so he retreated to White Town. 
And Sir Audulf de Bracy was unhorsed in the thick of 
the fight, and he defended himself very bravely, but 
ere long he was taken, and was led to Shrewsbury. 
And much did Sir Henry and Sir John rejoice at the 
capture, and they came to Shrewsbury into the 
presence of the King, and they gave up Sir Audulf to 
the King, who spake to him very fiercely, and he swore 
a great oath that he would have him drawn and hanged 
by cause that he was a traitor and a robber, and had 
slain his knights, and burnt his cities, and destroyed 
his castles. And boldly did Audulf make answer unto 
him, and said that never was he a traitor, nor any of 
his lineage. x\nd Fulk was at White Town, and he 

caused his brothers and his other men to be washed, 
and their wounds to be dressed. And then he be- 
thought him of Sir Audulf, and caused him to be 
sought for everywhere, and when that he could not be 
found, he thought never to see him more, and he 
made such great dole, that none could do more. 
And then John de Rampaigne came, and saw Fulk 
making such dole. " Sire," said he, " forbear this 
mourning, and, if it please God, before prime on the 
morrow you shall have good news of Sir Audulf de 
Bracy, for I myself will go speak with the King." 

And John de Rampaigne knew well the tabor, the 
harp, the viol, the citole, and jugglery, and he attired 
himself very richly, like unto some earl or baron. 
And he caused his hair and all his body to be dyed as 
black as jet, so that naught was white save his teeth. 
And he hung around his neck a very fair tabor, and 
then he mounted on to a fair palfrey, and rode through 
the town of Shrewsbury unto the gate of the castle, 
and of many an one was he observed. And John 
came before the King, and kneeled down, and he 
saluted the King much courteously. And the King 
returned his salutations, and asked of him whence he 
came. " Sire," said he, " I am an Ethiopian minstrel, 
born in Ethiopia." And the King said, " Are all the 

folk in your land of the like colour r " " Aye, my 
Lord, both men and women." " And what say they 
of me in foreign lands ? " " Sire," said he, " you are 
the most renowned King in all Christendom, and 
because of your great renown am I come to see you." 
" Fair Sir," said the King, " you are welcome." 
" Sire, my Lord, great thanks." And John said that 
more renowned was he for evil than for good, but the 
King heard him not. 

And that day John made much minstrelsy with 
tabor and with other instruments. And when that 
the King was gone to bed, Sir Henry de Audley sent 
for the black minstrel, and led him into his chamber. 
And they made much melody. And when that Sir 
Henry had well drunk, he said to a valet, " Go fetch 
Sir Audulf de Bracy, whom the King purports to put 
to death on the morrow, for one good night shall he 
have before he dies." And anon the valet brought 
Sir Audulf into the chamber. Then they talked, and 
they played, and John commenced a song which Sir 
Audulf aforetime had sung, and Sir Audulf raised 
his head, and looked him in the face, and with great 
difficulty he recognized him. And Sir Henry called 
for drink. And John was very serviceable, and sprang 
up quickly, and served the cup before them all. And 

John was cunning, and he let fall a powder into the 
cup, the which was perceived of none, for he was a 
good juggler. And so sleepy did all who drank 
become, that in short while they laid them down to 
sleep. And when all were asleep, John took a fool 
whom the King had, and he placed him betwixt the 
two knights who should have guarded Sir Audulf. 
And John and Sir Audulf took the towels and the 
sheets that were in the chamber, and they escaped by 
a window towards Severn, and went to White Town, 
the which was twelve leagues from Shrewsbury. 

But not longwhile could the matter be hid, where- 
fore on the morrow the whole truth was told unto 
the King, who was much an angered at the escape. 
And Fulk arose early in the morning, for little had he 
slept that night. And he looked toward Shrewsbury, 
and he saw Sir Audulf and John coming. And it 
needs not to ask if he was glad when he saw them. 
And he ran to them, to embrace and to kiss them. 
And he asked of them the news. And Sir Audulf 
recounted unto him how that John had acted, and 
how they had escaped. And then Fulk, who tofore 
was sad, had delight and great joy. 

Now let us leave Fulk, and speak of Dame Maude 
de Caus. 


When the King, who had so much desired her, 
knew of a truth that she was wedded to Sir Fulk, his 
enemy, by the counsel of the Archbishop Hubert, he 
did great wrong to the archbishop and to the lady, 
for he thought to carry her off by force. And she 
fled to the minster, and there was she delivered of a 
daughter, and the archbishop baptized her Hawyse, 
and after, she was the Lady of Wem. 

And Fulk and his companions came of a night to 
Canterbury, and from there they took the lady to 
Huggeford, and there she remained some time. And 
afterward it came to pass that the lady was with child, 
and she was dwelling privily at Alberbury. And the 
King caused her to be espied upon, and she went 
secretly thence to Shrewsbury, and there she was 
espied upon, and so great was she with child, that she 
could not journey thence. And she fled to the 
church of Our Lady at Shrewsbury, and there she was 
delivered of a daughter, who was baptized Joan, and 
after wedded Sir Henry de Pembridge. And after- 
ward Maude had a son who was born on a mountain 
in Wales, and was baptized John in a brook that 
comes from the maiden's well. And the lady and 
the child were very weak, for the child was born two 
months before its term. And when the child was 

confirmed of the bishop, he was called Fulk. And 
the lady and the child, who were weak, were carried 
from the mountain to a grange, the which was that 
of Carreganant. 

And when the King could in nowise avenge himself 
of Fulk, nor put the lady to shame nor seize her, then 
he sent a letter to Prince Lewis, who had wedded 
Joan, his sister, and prayed of him that of his love he 
would banish from his household his mortal enemy 
and a felon, (the which was Fulk,) and he would 
restore unto him all the lands which ever his ancestors 
had taken from his seigniory, on condition that he 
should possess him of the body of Fulk. And the 
Prince called into his chamber his wife Joan, and he 
shewed unto her the letter which the King, her brother, 
had sent unto him. And when the lady had heard 
the letter, she privily sent to Sir Fulk all the tenor 
of it, and that the King desired to come to terms with 
her lord. 

And when that Fulk heard the news, he was sore 
grieved, and he had fear of treason, and privily he sent 
Dame Maude with Baldwin de Hodnet to the Bishop 
of Canterbury, and he appointed for Baldwin to come 
to him at Dover. And Fulk, and his four brothers, 
and Audulf, and John de Rampaignc, armed them- 

selves in haste, and with their other men they came 
unto the castle of Balaham, before the Prince. "Sire." 
said Fulk, "loyally have I served you to my power, but 
now, Sire, one knows not in whom to put trust, for, 
because of the great promise of the King, you would 
desert me. And the King has sent unto you a letter, 
the which, Sire, you have hidden from me. There- 
fore, Sire, I fear me the more." " Fulk," said the 
Prince, "remain with me, for, truly, I have not thought 
to be treacherous unto you." " Certes, Sire," said 
Fulk, " I believe it right well, but, Sire, in nowise 
will I remain." And he took his leave of the Prince, 
and of all his companions. And he journeyed thence 
by night and by day until that he was come to Dover, 
and there he met Baldwin, who had escorted the 
lady to the archbishop. And they put out to sea, 
and came to Whitsand. 

And when that Fulk and his brothers and his other 
comrades were come to Paris, they saw King Philip 
of France, who was come into the meadows for to see 
his knights joust. And as yet Fulk spake not, and 
his comrades likewise. But when they saw so fair an 
assemblage, then they remained to see the jousts. 
And when the French saw the English knights, much 
the more did they labour to do well. Then Sir Druz 

de Montbener, a very proud Frenchman, sent to 
Sir Fulk, and he prayed of him to joust with him, and 
forthwith Fulk granted unto him his request. And 
Fulk and his brothers armed them, and they mounted 
on to their good steeds. And John de Rampaigne 
was very richly attired, and well mounted, and he had 
a very fine tabor, and he struck the tabor as he entered 
the lists, and the hills and the valleys rang again, and 
the horses became lively. And when the King saw 
Fulk armed, he said to Sir Druz de Montbener, 
" Have good care, for very clear is it that this English 
knight is very skilful and valiant." " Sire," said he, 
" no knight is there in all the world that I dare not 
encounter hand to hand, on horseback or afoot." 
" God be with you," said the King. And Fulk and 
Sir Druz spurred their steeds, and encountered one 
another. And Fulk struck him with his lance through 
the middle of his shield, and pierced his good hauberk, 
and through the middle of his shoulder, and the lance 
flew in pieces. And Sir Druz fell all flat on the ground. 
And Fulk took the horse of Sir Druz, and he led it 
away, and sent it as a gift to Sir Druz, for no wish had 
Sir Fulk to keep the horse. 

And after that, there came a French knight who 
would avenge Sir Druz, and he struck Fulk with his 

lance in the middle of his shield, and his lance brake 
And Fulk struck him back on the middle of his helm, 
and his lance was all splintered. And the knight was 
unhorsed, whether he would or not. And the brothers 
of Fulk and his companions were ready to joust, but 
the King would not suffer them. And the King hasted 
to Fulk, and said to him, " God bless you, English 
knight, for right well have you done." And he 
prayed of him that he would sojourn with him. And 
Fulk gave the King much thanks, and granted unto 
him that it should be as he desired. And that day 
was Fulk observed of many, and was praised and 
commended in all things. And such grace had Fulk, 
that he never came to any place where was courage, or 
knighthood, or prowess, or goodness, that he was not 
held for the best, and without peer. 

And Fulk sojourned with King Philip of France, 
and he was loved and honoured of the King and the 
Queen, and of all good folk. And the King asked of 
him his name. And Fulk said that he was called 
Amis du Bois. " Sir Amis," said the King, " know 
you Fulk Fitz-Warine, of whom everywhere much 
good is spoken ? " " Aye, Sire," said he, " oft have 
I seen him." " Of what stature is he ? " " In my 
estimation, Sire, of like stature with myself." x\nd 

the King said, " This may well be, for you are both 
valiant." And no tournament or joust in all France 
could Fulk hear of, but he would be there, and every- 
where he was esteemed and loved and honoured 
because of his prowess and his generosity. 

And when that the King of England knew that 
Sir Fulk was dwelling with King Philip of France, he 
sent unto the King, and prayed of him, if so it pleased 
him, that he would banish from his household, and 
from his retinue, Fulk Fitz- Warine, his mortal enemy. 
And when the King of France had heard the letter, 
he declared by St. Denis that no such knight was in 
his retinue, and such answer sent he to the King of 
England. And when Fulk had heard this news, he 
went to the King of France, and craved leave to 
depart. And the King said, " Tell me if there is 
aught wanting unto you, and ample amends will I 
have made of that for the which you would leave me." 
" Sire," said he, " such tidings have I heard as compel 
me to depart." And from this did the King under- 
stand that he was Fulk. And the King said, 
" Sir Amis du Bois, I trow that you are Fulk Fitz- 
Warine." " Of a truth, my Lord, that am I." And 
the King said, " You shall remain with me, and richer 
lands will I give unto you than ever you had in 

England." " Certes, Sire," said he, " unworthy is 
he to receive lands as the gift of another, who is unable 
to hold as of right those which are his by lawful 

And Fulk took his leave of the King, and came to 
the sea, and he saw the ships afloat on the sea, and 
there was no wind towards England, but the weather 
was fair enough. And Fulk saw a mariner who 
seemed hardy and daring, and he called unto him, 
and said, " Fair Sir, is this ship yours ? " " Aye, 
Sire," said he. " What is your name ? " " Sire," 
said he, " Mador of the Mount of Russia, where I 
was born." " Mador," said Fulk, " know you well 
this business, and how to carry folk by sea to divers 
regions ? " " Certes, Sire, no land of renown is 
there in all Christendom whither I know not how to 
conduct a ship well and safely." " Forsooth," said 
Fulk, " yours is a very perilous calling. Tell me, 
Mador, fair sweet brother, by what death did your 
father die ? " And Mador made answer unto him 
that he was drowned in the sea. " And your grand- 
father ? " " He likewise." " And your great-grand- 
father ? " " In the same manner, and all my kinsfolk 
that I know of, to the fourth degree." " Of a truth," 
said Fulk, " very foolhardy are you that you dare go 

to sea." " Wherefore, Sire ? " said he. " Every one 
will die the death that is destined for him." " Sire," 
said Mador, " if so it pleases you, answer my question. 
Where did your father die ? " " Certes, in his bed." 
" And where your grandfather ? " " He likewise." 
" And your great-grandfather ? " " Certes, all of 
my lineage that I know of, died in their beds." " Of 
a truth, Sire," said Mador, " since all your lineage died 
in bed, greatly do I marvel that you dare enter any 
bed." And then Fulk perceived that the mariner 
had said truly unto him that every one shall die the 
death that is destined for him, and he knows not the 
which, whether on land or at sea. 

And Fulk spake to Mador, who knew the handling 
of ships, and prayed him that for love, and for reward, 
he would design and fit out a ship, and he would 
defray the charges. And to this did Mador agree. 
And the ship was built in a forest hard by the sea, 
according unto the design of Mador in all things, and 
so good and plenteous were all the ropes and the other 
fittings that appertained to it, that it was a marvel, 
and it was beyond measure well victualled. 

And Fulk and his brothers and his men put out to 
sea, and they drew nigh unto England. And anon 
Mador saw a ship well armed coming towards them. 

And when the ships approached unto each other, a 
knight spake unto Mador and said, " Master mariner, 
to whom belongs this ship the which you govern, for 
none such is used to pass here ? " " Sire," said 
Mador, " it is mine." " By my faith," said the 
knight, " it is not. You are robbers, and well do I 
know it by the quarterings on the sail, which are the 
arms of Fulk Fitz-Warine, and he is in the ship, and 
this day will I deliver up his body to King John." 
" By my faith," said Fulk, " that will you not, but 
if you desire aught of us, willingly shall you have it." 
" I will have you all," said he, " and all you have, in 
despite of you." " By my faith," said Fulk, " you 
lie." And Mador, who was a good and bold mariner, 
let his ship sail, and he ran right through the middle 
of the other ship, so that the sea entered into it. 
And thus did the ship perish, but first many a hard 
blow was given. And when the ship was vanquished, 
Fulk and his comrades took much riches and victuals, 
and they carried them to their ship. And ere long 
the other ship perished and sank. 

And all that whole year Fulk remained coasting 
England, and to none would he do hurt save to King 
John, but ofttimes did he take his goods, and what- 
soever he could of his. And Fulk set sail towards 

Scotland, and ere long there came from the west a 
wind which drave them three days from Scotland. 
And at last they saw an island the which was very 
pleasant and fair as far as they could judge, and they 
sailed towards it, and found a good port. And Fulk 
and his four brothers, and Audulf, and Baldwin, went 
ashore to survey the country, and to victual their ship. 
And ere long they saw a lad minding sheep, and when 
he saw the knights, he came towards them, and 
saluted them in a corrupt Latin. And Fulk asked of 
him if he knew of any meat to sell in the country. 
" Certes, Sire," said he, " no, for this is an island the 
which is inhabited by none save a few, and these 
people live on their beasts. But if an it please you to 
come with me, willingly shall you have such meat as I 
have." And Fulk thanked him, and went with him, 
and theyouth led them into a cavern beneath the earth, 
the which was very fair, and he made them to be 
seated, and received them very kindly. " Sire," said 
the lad, " I have a serving-man in the mountain. 
Be not disquieted if that I sound the horn for him, 
and soon shall we eat." " In God's name," said Fulk. 
And the lad went without the cavern, and sounded 
six blasts, and then he returned to the cavern. 
And anon there came six great and tall and fier 

villains, clad in coarse and ill-favoured tabards, and 
each had in his hand a great staff, hard and strong. 
And when Fulk saw them, he had suspicion of evil 
design. And the six villains entered a chamber, and 
they put off their tabards, and dressed them in a 
green stuff, and shoes broidered with gold, and in all 
things they were as richly attired as any king could be. 
And they came back to the hall, and saluted Sir Fulk 
and his companions, and they asked of them to play 
the chess with them, and there was brought to them 
a very rich chessboard, with chessmen in fine gold and 
silver. And Sir William played a game, but soon did 
he lose it. And Sir John played another, and quickly 
was it lost. And Philip, and Alan, and Baldwin, and 
Audulf, one after the other, played a game, and each 
one lost his. Then said one of the fiercest of the 
shepherds to Fulk, " Will you play ? " " No," said 
he. " By my faith," said the shepherd, " you shall 
play or wrestle in spite of yourself." " By my faith, 
wretched villain of a shepherd," said Fulk, " in that 
do you lie, but if so it be that I must wrestle or play 
in spite of myself, I will play with you after the manner 
that I have learnt." And he sprang up, and drew his 
sword, and struck him so that his head flew into the 
midst of the place, and then another, and then a third, 

until that Fulk and his comrades had slain all the vile 

And Fulk entered into a chamber, and there he 
found an old woman seated. And in her hand she 
had a horn, and oft did she put it to her mouth, but 
in nowise could she sound it. And when she saw 
Fulk, she cried him mercy ; and he asked of her what 
use the horn would be if that she could sound it. 
And the old woman said to him that if the horn was 
sounded, succour would come to her in plenty. 
And Fulk took the horn, and entered into another 
chamber, and there he saw seven damsels who were 
fair beyond measure. And they were garmented 
very richly, and did very rich work. And when they 
saw Fulk, they fell on their knees, and prayed him 
mercy. And Fulk asked of them who they were. 
And one of them said to him, " Sire, I am the daughter 
of Aunflorreis of Orkney, and whilst that my lord was 
dwelling in his castle in Orkney, the which is called 
Castle Bagot, and is on the sea, beside a very fair 
forest, it chanced that I and these damsels, and four 
knights and others, entered a boat on the sea, and 
went to disport ourselves. And ere long there came 
upon us in a ship, with their company, the seven 
sons of the old woman within, and they slew all our 

men, and brought us hither, and, against our wills, 
as God knows, they have dishonoured our bodies, 
wherefore we pray of you, in the name of God in 
whom you believe, that you aid us in this captivity, if 
so it be that you can escape hence, for well do I see, by 
your look, that you are not dwellers in this country." 
And Fulk comforted the damsels, and said that he 
would aid them to his power. And Fulk and his 
companions found much riches and victuals and 
armour. And there Fulk found the haubergeon the 
which he held of so great worth, and which he much 
prized, and was wont to use hidden, and which, in 
all his life, he would neither sell, nor give away in 
exchange for aught. 

And Fulk furnished his ship plenteously, and he 
took the damsels to his ship, and set them at their 
ease all he could. And then he commanded all his 
men that they should arm themselves in haste. And 
when all were armed according to their fancy, then 
Fulk raised the hue and cry with the little horn the 
which he had taken from the old woman, and there 
came running over the fields more than two hundred 
of the thieves of the country. And Fulk and his 
company set upon them, and they defended themselves 
with vigour. And there were slain of the robbers 

and thieves more than two hundred, and none were 
there in all that island save only robbers and thieves, 
who were wont to slay all they could come at, or take 
at sea. 

And Fulk asked of Mador if he knew how to bring 
him by sea to the realm the which is called Orkney. 
" Yea, forsooth," said he. " It is but an isle, and 
the Castle Bagot is very nigh unto the port." And 
Fulk said, " At this castle would I be." " Sire, this 
day shall you be there." And when that Fulk was 
arrived, then he asked of the damsels if they had 
knowledge of the country. " Certes, Sire," said one. 
" It is the realm of Aunflorreis, my father." And 
Fulk came to the castle, and he restored unto the 
King his daughter and the damsels. And he received 
them with great honour, and gave rich gifts unto Fulk. 

And so far had Fulk sailed for to see marvels and 
adventures, that he had environed the seven isles of 
the ocean, Brittany, and Ireland, and Gothland, and 
Norway, and Denmark, and Orkney, and Scandinavia. 
And in Scandinavia there dwells no man, but only 
serpents and other foul beasts. And there Fulk saw 
horned serpents, and the horns were very pointed. 
And they had four feet, and flew like unto birds. 
And such an one assailed Fulk, and struck him with 

his horn, and pierced his shield through the middle. 
And Fulk marvelled much at the blow, and he per- 
ceived very well that when the serpent struck him 
through the shield, it could not quickly withdraw its 
horn. And Fulk stabbed it through the heart with 
his sword. Then Fulk saw a venomous beast which 
had the head of a mastiff, a thick beard like unto 
a goat, and ears like unto a hare, and many other 
beasts which St. Patrick had driven out of Ireland, 
and, by the power of God, had confined here, for 
the good man, St. Patrick, was in favour with him. 
And now does no venomous beast inhabit the land 
of Ireland, save only lizards without tails. 

And Fulk sailed towards the north over the ocean, 
beyond Orkney, and he found such cold and ice, that 
none could endure the cold, and because of the ice, 
the ship could not go forward in the sea. And Fulk 
turned him back towards England. And ere long 
there arose a very fearful tempest, by the which all 
thought to perish, and they devoutly cried to God 
and to St. Clement to be delivered from the storm. 
And this tempest endured fifteen days. And then they 
saw land, but they knew not what land it was. And 
Fulk went ashore, and saw a very fair castle. And he 
entered into the castle, for the gate was ajar, and no 

living man or beast did he find within, or any in all 
the country. And much did he marvel that none 
should dwell in so fair a place. And he returned to 
his ship, and told of it to his company. " Sire," said 
Mador, " let us leave the ship here, and let us all go 
ashore, save those who shall guard our victuals, and 
perchance we shall soon hear from some one the state 
of this country." And when they were come to 
shore, they met a peasant. And Mador asked of him 
what land it was, and how it was called, and wherefore 
it was not inhabited. And the peasant said, " This 
is the kingdom of Iberia, and the country is called 
Carthage. And this castle belongs to the Duke of 
Carthage, who holds it of the King of Iberia. And 
this duke had a daughter, the fairest maiden who was 
known in the kingdom of Iberia. And this damsel 
ascended one day the chief tower of the castle. And 
there came a flying dragon, and he took the damsel, 
and carried her to a high mountain in the sea, and 
there he ate her. And this dragon has slain and 
destroyed all in this land, so that no one dares dwell 
in the country, nor does the duke dare enter the 
castle, so horrible is the dragon." 

And Fulk returned to his galley, and he sailed on 
his way. Then they saw a great mountain in the sea. 

" Sire," said Mador, " this is the mountain where 
dwells the dragon. Now are we all in great peril ! " 
" Hold your peace," said Fulk. " As yet you see 
naught but what is fair. Would you die of fear, 
Master Mador ? Many dragons have we seen, and 
well has God delivered us from peril. Never yet 
have we been in peril, but that, by the mercy of God, 
we have well escaped. Your cold comfort would put 
a coward to death." 

And Fulk took Audulf de Bracy, and step by step 
he ascended the mountain, the which was very high. 
And when they were come to the summit of the 
mountain, they saw lying there many good hauberks, 
and helms, and swords, and other arms, but, besides 
the arms, naught did they see save the bones of men. 
And they saw a large and fair tree, and a spring 
beneath it, running with water fair and clear. And 
Fulk looked around him, and saw a hollow rock. 
And he raised his right arm, and crossed him in the 
name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost, and he drew his sword, and entered with much 
boldness, as one who put his whole trust in God. 

And he saw a very fair damsel weeping and making 
great dole. And Fulk asked of her whence she was. 
" Sire," said she, " I am daughter to the Duke of 

Carthage, and I have been here seven years. And 
never have I seen a Christian here who came not 
against his will, and, for God's sake, go away hence if 
you are able, for if the dragon come from within, 
never will you escape." " Certes," said Fulk, " never 
will I go until I have heard and seen more." " Dam- 
sel," said Fulk, " what does the dragon with you ? 
Does he no harm to you ? " " Sire," said she, " the 
dragon is fierce and strong, and he would carry an 
armed knight to these mountains if he but got him in 
his claws, and many an one has he brought hither and 
devoured, whose bones you may see outside, and 
human flesh does he love more than any other. And 
when his hideous face and beard are covered with 
blood, then he comes to me, and makes me to wash 
his face, and his beard, and his breast, with clear 
water. And when he would sleep, he goes to his 
couch, which is all of fine gold, for such is his nature, 
that beyond measure is he very hot, and gold is by 
nature very cold, and, to cool himself, he lies on gold. 
And when he goes to his couch, he takes a great stone, 
such as you may see there, and he puts it before the 
door, for fear of me, lest I should slay him as he sleeps, 
for he has the sense of man, and greatly does he fear 
me. But well I know that in the end he will slay me." 
9 2 

" By God," said Fulk, " if so it please God, that shall 
he not." 

And Fulk took the damsel, and gave her into the 
keeping of Sir Audulf, and they came forth from the 
rock. And scarce were they come forth, when they 
saw the dragon flying in the air towards them. And 
from its mouth, which was glowing, it cast forth 
smoke and flames most horrible. And it was a very 
foul beast, and it had a great head, and square teeth, 
and sharp claws, and a long tail. And when that the 
dragon saw Fulk, forthwith it struck at him, and in its 
flight it struck him on his shield, which it rent in 
twain. And Fulk raised his sword, and struck the 
dragon on the head as hard as he was able. And the 
blow hurt it not at all, nor did it in anywise flinch 
under it, so strong were its scales and its horns in 
front. And the dragon took its flight from afar for 
to strike hard. And Fulk, who could not withstand 
the blow, dodged behind the tree which was beyond 
the spring. And Fulk perceived that he could not 
hurt the dragon in front, so that he watched for the 
dragon's return, and he struck it with vigour in the 
body on the tail, and cut it in twain. And the dragon 
began to cry out, and to roar, and it sprang towards 
the damsel, for it would take her and carry her else- 

where. And Sir Audulf defended her. And so 
tightly did the dragon seize Sir Audulf in its claws, 
that if Fulk had not come in great haste, it would have 
crushed him. Then came Fulk, and he cut off its 
claw, and with great difficulty did he deliver Sir 
Audulf, for firmly had it fixed him with its claw 
through his hauberk. And Fulk struck the dragon 
in the mouth with his sword, and in such manner he 
slew it. 

And Fulk was very weary, and he reposed him 
awhile, and then he went to the bed of the dragon, 
and he took the gold which he found there, and carried 
it to his galley. And John de Rampaigne examined 
the wound of Sir Audulf, and dressed it, for he knew 
much of medicines. And Mador turned his ship 
towards Carthage, and they arrived in the land, and 
restored his daughter to the duke, who was very 
joyful when he saw her. And the damsel related unto 
her lord the life she had led, and how that Fulk had 
slain the dragon. And the duke fell down at the 
feet of Fulk, and thanked him for his daughter, and 
he prayed of him, if it pleased him, that he would 
dwell in the country, and he would give him all 
Carthage, and his daughter in marriage. And heartily 
did Fulk give him thanks for his generous offer, and 

he said that willingly would he have taken his daughter 
if that his Christianity had suffered it, but already was 
he wed. And this said, Fulk sojourned there until 
that Audulf was healed of his wound, and then he 
took leave of the duke, who was much grieved at his 
departure. And the duke gave them many a good 
and fair jewel, and very fine and swift steeds, and to 
each one he gave rich gifts. 

And Fulk and his comrades set sail towards England. 
And when they were come to Dover, they went ashore, 
and they left Mador and the ship in a certain place 
where they could find him when they would. And 
Fulk and his comrades had learned from the peasants 
that King John was at Windsor, and they set out 
privily on their way towards Windsor. And by day 
they slept and rested them, and by night they wan- 
dered on until they were come to the forest, and 
there they lodged them in a certain place, in the 
forest of Windsor, where they used aforetime to be, 
for Fulk knew all parts there. Then they heard 
huntsmen, and the men with the hounds to blow the 
horn, and by this they knew that the King was going 
to hunt. And Fulk and his companions armed them- 
selves very richly. And Fulk swoie a great oath that 
he would not, for fear of death, refrain from avenging 

himself on the King, who wrongfully, and by force, 
had disinherited him, and that he would boldly 
challenge his rights and his heritage. And Fulk 
caused his companions to remain there, and he himself, 
he said, would go to spy out adventures. 

And Fulk went on his way, and he met an old 
charcoal-burner, who carried a sieve in his hand, and 
was all dressed in black, as a charcoal-burner should be. 
And Fulk prayed him that of love he would give him 
his clothes and his sieve for money. " Willingly, 
Sire," said he. And Fulk gave him ten besants, and 
prayed him that, for love, he would tell of it to no one. 
And the charcoal-burner went on his way. And 
Fulk remained, and anon he dressed himself in the 
attire which the charcoal-burner had given unto him, 
and he went to the charcoal, and began to stir the fire. 
And Fulk saw a large iron fork, the which he took in 
his hand, and he arranged here and there the pieces of 
wood. And ere long there came the King, with three 
knights, all afoot, to where Fulk was arranging his 
fire. And when Fulk saw the King, right well he 
knew him, and he threw down the fork, and saluted 
his lord, and he fell on his knees before him very 
humbly. And the King and his three knights laughed 
heartily, and they made game of the breeding and 
9 6 

bearing of the charcoal-burner, and longwhile did 
they remain there. " Sir Villain," said the King, 
" have you seen any stag or doe pass by here ? " 
" Yea, my Lord, a while ago." " What beast did you 
see ? " " Sire, my Lord, one horned, and it had long 
horns." " Where is it ? " " Sire, my Lord, right 
well do I know how to lead you to where I saw it." 
" Forward, then, Sir Villain, and we will follow you." 
" Sire," said the charcoal-burner, " shall I take my 
fork in my hand ? for if it were taken, I should suffer 
great loss thereby." " Yea, villain, if you will." 
And Fulk took the great fork of iron in his hand, and 
escorted the King to shoot, as though he had a very 
fine bow. " Sire, my Lord," said Fulk, " may it please 
you to wait, and I will go into the thicket, and will 
make the beast to come out by this path here." " Be 
it so," said the King. And Fulk sprang hastily into 
the thick of the forest, and he commanded his com- 
pany to seize King John quickly, " for I have brought 
him here, with three knights only, and all his retinue 
is on the other side of the forest." And Fulk and his 
company leaped out of the thicket, and cried upon 
the King, and seized him forthwith. " Sir King," 
said Fulk, " now I have you in my power, and such 
judgment will I mete out unto you as you would have 
97 H 

done unto me if that you had taken me." And the 
King trembled with fear, for he had great dread of 
Fulk. And Fulk swore that he should die for the 
great hurt and the disinheriting the which he had done 
unto him, and unto many a good man of England. 
And the King cried him mercy, and prayed him his 
life for the love of God, and wholly would he restore 
unto him all his heritage, and whatsoever he had 
taken from him and from his people, and he would 
grant unto him his love and goodwill all his days, and 
of this he would give him in all things such surety as 
it pleased him to devise. And Fulk duly granted 
unto him his request on condition that, in the presence 
of his knights, he would plight his word to keep this 
covenant. And the King plighted unto him his word 
that he would hold to the covenant, and right glad 
was he that he could thus escape. 

And he returned to his palace, and he caused his 
knights and his retinue to assemble, and he related 
unto them, word for word, how that Sir Fulk had 
deceived him, and he said that under constraint had 
he made the oath, for the which he would not hold 
to it, and he commanded that all should arm them in 
haste to take those felons in the park. Then Sir 
James de Normandy, who was cousin to the King, 
9 8 

prayed that he might have the avant-guard, and he 
said that " the English — at least all those of rank — 
are cousins to Sir Fulk, and because of this they are 
traitors to the King, and will not take these felons." 
Then said Randolf, Earl of Chester, " By my faith 
Sir Knight, saving the honour of our lord the King 
and not yours, in that you lie." And he would have 
struck him with his fist if that the earl-marshal had 
not been there, and he said that they are not, nor ever 
were, traitors to the King or to his people, but truly 
had he said that all men of rank, and the King himself, 
were cousins to Sir Fulk. Then said the earl-marshal, 
" Let us go pursue Sir Fulk. Then will the King see 
who will falter because of cousinship." And Sir 
James de Normandy and his fifteen companion knights 
armed them very richly, and all in white armour, and 
they were all nobly mounted on white steeds. And 
he hasted forward with his company to secure the 

And John de Rampaigne had espied all their doings, 
and he told them unto Sir Fulk, who could in nowise 
escape save by battle. And Sir Fulk and his com- 
panions armed them very richly, and they hurtled 
themselves boldly against Sir James, and they de- 
fended themselves valiantly, and they slew all his 

companions save four who were wounded nigh unto 
death. And Sir James was taken. And anon Sir Fulk 
and his companions armed themselves with the harness 
of "Sir James and of the other Normans, and they 
mounted on to their goodly steeds, the which were 
white, for their own steeds were tired and lean. And 
they armed Sir James with the harness of Sir Fulk, 
and they bound his mouth so that he could not speak, 
and put his helm on his head, and they rode towards 
the King, who, when he saw them, knew them by 
their harness, and thought that Sir James and his 
companions brought Sir Fulk. 

Then Sir Fulk presented Sir James to the King, 
and said that he was Sir Fulk. And when they saw 
this, the Earl of Chester and the earl-marshal were 
very sorrowful. And the King, for the gift, made 
command to him that he should kiss him, but 
Sir Fulk said that he could not tarry to take off his 
helm, for that he must needs go pursue the other 
Fitz-Warines. And the King descended down from 
off his goodly steed, and he commanded him'to mount 
on to it, for it was swift to pursue his enemies. And 
Sir Fulk alighted, and lie mounted on to the steed of 
the King, and departed to his companions, and they 
fled a good six leagues from there. And there they 

disarmed thcrn in a wood, and washed their wounds, 
and they bandaged the wound of William, his brother, 
who was grievously wounded by one of the Normans, 
and they held him as dead, for the which they all made 
dole without measure. 

And forthwith the King gave command to hang 
Sir Fulk. Then came Emery de Pin, a Gascon, who 
was kinsman to Sir James, and he said that he would 
hang him. And he took him, and led him a short 
way thence, and caused his helm to be taken off. 
And anon he saw that it was James, and he unbound 
his mouth. And he told unto him all that had 
happened betwixt him and Sir Fulk. And Emery 
came forthwith to the King, and brought Sir James 
who related unto him how Sir Fulk had served him. 
And when the King perceived that he was thus de- 
ceived, he was sore vexed, and he swore a great oath 
that never would he take of! his hauberk until that he 
had taken these traitors. But of this Sir Fulk knew 

And the King and his earls and his barons pursued 
them by the hoofmarks of their horses until that they 
were come well-nigh unto the wood where Fulk was. 
And when Fulk perceived them, he wept and lamented 
for William, his brother, and he held himself lost for 

ever. And William prayed of them that they would 
cut off his head, and carry it with them, so that the 
King, when he found his body, might not know who 
he was. And Fulk said that this he would not do for 
the world, and with tears he prayed very pitifully that 
God, in His mercy, would aid them, and such grief 
was there among them, that never was greater seen. 
And Randolf, Earl of Chester, led the way, and 
when he perceived Sir Fulk, he gave command to his 
company to halt, and he went alone to Sir Fulk, and 
besought him, for the love of God, that he would yield 
him to the King, and he would answer for him for 
life and limb, and that he should be wholly reconciled 
to the King. And Fulk made answer that this he 
would not do for all the wealth of the world. " But, 
Sir Cousin, for the love of God I pray you for my 
brother, who lies there, that, when he is dead, you 
will cause his body to be buried, so that wild beasts 
may not devour it, and ours likewise when we are 
dead. And return you to your lord, the King, and 
do your duty by him without guile, and without 
regard to us who are of your blood. And now here 
will we receive the fate which is ordained for us." 
And the earl, all weeping, returned to his company. 
And Fulk remained, and he wept very tenderly with 

compassion for his brother, whom he must needs 
leave there, and he prayed God that He would succour 
and aid them. 

And the earl commanded his retinue and his com- 
pany to the assault, and they struck at them with 
vigour. And the earl himself attacked Sir Fulk, but 
at last the earl lost his horse, and his company were 
in great part slain. And Sir Fulk and his brothers 
defended themselves valiantly. And whilst that 
Fulk defended himself, Sir Berard de Blois came behind 
him. and struck him with his sword on his side, and he 
thought to have slain him. Then Fulk turned round 
and struck him back on the left shoulder with both his 
hands, and he cut through his heart and his lungs, 
and he fell dead from his steed. And so much did 
Fulk bleed, that he swooned on the neck of his steed, 
and his sword fell from his hand. Then was there 
wondrous sorrow amongst his brothers. And John, 
his brother, sprang up behind Fulk on his steed, and 
held him up so that he might not fall, and they took 
to flight, for no strength had they to remain. And 
the King and his retinue pursued them, but take them 
they could not. And all the night they wandered 
thus, till on the morrow they came to the sea to Mador 
the mariner. And then Fulk revived, and he asked 

where he was, and in whose hands. And his brothers 
comforted him as best they could, and they laid him 
in the ship in a very fair bed, and John de Rampaigne 
dressed his wounds. 

And the Earl of Chester had suffered great loss of 
his men, and hard by he saw William Fitz-Warine 
well-nigh dead, and he took him, and sent him to an 
abbey to be cared for. And at last he was discovered 
there, and the King caused him to be brought in a 
litter before him to Windsor, and made him to be 
cast into a deep prison, and he was much an angered 
with the Earl of Chester for that he had hidden him. 
And the King said, " Fulk is wounded unto death, and 
this one I have now here. The others I shall take 
easily, wherever they may be. Certcs, I am sore 
vexed at the pride of Fulk, for if that he had not been 
proud, he would have been still living. And as long 
as lie was alive, no such knight was there in all the 
world, wherefore great loss is it to lose such a knight." 

And in the sea, nigh unto Spain, is an isle, all com- 
passed about with high rocks, and there is but one 
entrance, the which is called Beteloye, half a league 
long, and as much broad, and neither man nor beast 
dwell there. And on the sixth day they came to 
this i le. 


Then Fulk began to sleep, for no sleep had he had 
for six days. And his brothers and his retinue went 
ashore, and he himself all alone slept in the ship, the 
which was fastened to a rock. And ere long there 
came a mighty wind, the which broke the fastenings 
of the ship, and carried the ship out into the open 
sea. And when that Fulk awoke, and saw the stars 
and the firmament, he called to his brother John and 
to his other companions, but no one answered him, and 
he perceived that he was alone upon the open sea. 
Then he began to weep, and to curse his fate, the 
which was so hard, and he grieved for his brothers. 
And then sleep took hold of him, and soon his ship 
came to the land of Barbary, at the city of Tunis. 
And there, at that time, was Messobryn, the King 
of Barbary, with four kings and six admirals, who were 
all Saracens. And the King was leaning on a tower 
over against the sea, and he saw this strange galley 
the which had arrived at his land, and he gave com- 
mand to two men-at-arms to go see what' it was. 
And the two men entered the ship, and they found 
naught save the knight, who was still asleep. And 
one of them struck him with his foot, and bade 
him awaken. And the knight sprang up like a man 
affrighted, and he struck him with his fist so that he 

fell overboard into the sea, and the other took to 
flight, and came to tell unto the King of all that had 

And the King commanded an hundred knights to 
go seize the ship, and to bring the knight to him. 
And the hundred knights, all armed, came to the ship, 
and assailed it on all sides. And Fulk defended 
himself courageously against all, but at last he yielded 
him on condition that he should be well used. And 
they led him before the King, and he commanded 
that he should be well cared for in a chamber. 

And Isorie, the sister of the King, used ofttimes 
to visit and to comfort him, and she was a very fair 
and noble damsel. And she perceived that he was 
wounded in the side, and she prayed of him that for 
love he would tell her his name, and of what country 
he was, and in what manner he had been wounded. 
And he made answer to her that he was named Marin 
le Perdu of France, and that he loved tenderly from 
his heart a damsel, the daughter of an earl of his 
country, and that she made him in return great 
semblance of love, but she loved another more. 
" And it happed that she and I were together one 
day in much delight, and she held me very fast in 
her embrace. And then there came the other one 

whom she loved more, and he smote me with his 
sword, and they placed me in a galley on the sea for 
dead, and the galley brought me to these parts." 
" Certes," said Isorie, " this damsel was scarce 
courteous." And Isorie took her harp, the which 
was very precious, and she made descants and notes 
for to solace Fulk, for she saw that he was fair, and 
of courtly breeding. 

And Fulk asked of Isorie the fair what was 
the matter in dispute in the hall before the King. 
" Certes," said she, " I will tell you. In the land of 
Iberia there was a duke who was called the Duke of 
Carthage, and he had a very fair daughter, Ydoine of 
Carthage. And during the lifetime of her father she 
dwelt in his castle of Carthage. And at length there 
came a dragon the which seized her, and carried her to 
a high mountain in the sea, and there he kept her for 
the space of more than seven years, until that a knight 
of England, who was called Fulk Fitz-Warine de Metz, 
came to that mountain and slew the dragon, and 
restored her to her father. And presently the duke 
died, and she held all the duchy. And the King, my 
brother, sent messengers unto her that he would take 
her to wife; but she denied him, and for the shame 
which the King had, he caused a great multitude to 

assemble, and he laid waste her cities, and demolished 
her castles. And the damsel fled thence into a strange 
country for to seek help, and now is she come again 
with people without number, and is about to make 
fierce war upon the King, and thus is she ready to do 
battle against a host, or with knight against knight, 
in such manner that if her people be vanquished, she 
will go again into her own country, and if ours be 
overcome, then shall the King, my brother, wholly 
make good the damage. And touching this, there 
came to-day into the hall proud messengers, and may 
it please the god Mahoun that you may be such an 
one that you will be bold to do battle for the King, 
my brother, for great honour would befall you." 
" Certes, my lady, much am I beholden to my lord 
the King, and above all to you, but never will I do 
battle for Saracen against Christian, even though I 
should lose my life. But if that the King will abandon 
his faith, and will become a Christian, and be baptized, 
then will I do battle, and will save his lands and his 
people, and will win for him the damsel of whom you 
have spoken." And Isorie went and told unto Mcs- 
sobryn, her brother, the King of Barbary, all that 
Fulk, who had called himself Marin le Perdu of 
France, had promised unto her. And the King 

forthwith granted whatever he might counsel, if that 
thus he could achieve his desire. 

And the day of battle was ordained, and the King 
armed Sir Fulk very richly, and Isorie herself served 
him right willingly. And the King, and his Bar- 
barines, and his admirals, and all his other men, were 
well armed, and much folk with them. And they 
sent forward his knight Fulk, who was to do battle, 
and the duchess sent forward her knight. And the 
knights, who were without fear, goaded their horses 
with their spurs, and they struck each other with their 
lances in such manner that the pieces flew about the 
field. And then they drew their swords, and boldly 
did they encounter each other. And Fulk struck the 
horse of his companion in such wise that he felled 
it dead, but he had minded to strike the knight. 
And when the knight was on the ground, then said he, 
" You wicked pagan, you wicked Saracen of ill faith, 
may God in Heaven curse you ! Wherefore have 
you slain my horse ? " And Fulk dismounted afoot, 
and the day long they combated together with all 
their might. And when it was nigh even, the knight 
said to Fulk, " Sir Pagan, you are very strong and 
vigorous. Tell me for love where you were born ? " 
" If it please you to know my nation, I will not tell 

it unto you if that you tell me not first your own, 
and then will I make it known unto you." Then the 
knight told unto him how that he was a Christian, 
born in England, the son of Guarin de Metz, and that 
he was called Philip the Red. And word by word 
he related in order all his life, and that of his brothers, 
and how that the duchess came in a ship to the isle of 
Beteloye, and received them into the ship, and saved 
them, for there had they been for the space of half a 
year and more, and had eaten their horses from hunger. 
" And when the countess saw us, forthwith she knew 
us, and found for us all that was needful to us, and 
she told unto us how that she came from England, and 
had sought us there for to wage war for her. And a 
very hard life have we led." 

Then said Fulk, " Fair brother Philip the Red, 
know you me not ? I am Fulk, your brother." 
" Nay, certes, Sir Saracen, that are you not, but now 
you would deceive me. By God, you shall not ! " 
Then Fulk told him of a true mark, by the which he 
knew him. And then they made great rejoicing, and 
put off the combat until the morrow. And Philip 
told unto the duchess how that it was Fulk, his 
brother, with whom he had fought, and by the counsel 
of Fulk and Philip and his other brothers, the King, 

and all his household, were baptized, and the King 
wedded the duchess with great honour. 

And Fulk and his brothers and his household 
sojourned awhile with the King, and then - they 
equipped them very richly to go to England. And 
the King gave unto them gold, and silver, and horses, 
and arms, and all the riches that they would have or 
desire, and they filled their ship with so great wealth 
that it was marvellous. And when that they were 
come privily into England, Fulk commanded that 
John de Rampaigne should dissemble him as a mer- 
chant, and should make inquiry where King John 
was, and if William, his brother, was alive or not. 
And John dressed himself very richly in the guise of 
a merchant, and came to London. And he lodged 
him in the house of the mayor, and caused himself to 
be served very sumptuously, and he fraternized with 
the mayor and all his household, and gave unto them 
liberal gifts, and he prayed of the mayor that he would 
make him known unto the King, to the end that he 
might bring his ship to his land. And that which 
he spake was corrupt Latin, but the mayor under- 
stood him well. And the mayor led him before the 
King at Westminster, and the merchant saluted him 
very courteously in his language. And the King 

understood him well, and asked of him who he was, 
and whence he came. " Sire," said he, " I am a 
merchant of Greece, and I have been in Babylon and 
Alexandria and India the Greater, and I have a ship 
laden with condiments, and rich cloth, and pearls, 
and horses, and other riches, the which might be of 
great worth unto this kingdom." " I would," said 
the King, " that you and yours come ashore in my 
land, and I will be your surety." And they were 
bidden to stay and eat. And the mayor and the 
merchant ate together before the King. And ere long 
there came two sergeants-at-mace, and they led into 
the hall a knight, tall, and stout, and with a long 
black beard, and he was meanly clad, and they made 
him to be seated in the midst of the hall, and gave 
him to eat. And the merchant asked of the mayor 
who he was, and he told unto him that he was a knight 
called Sir William Fitz-Warine, and he related unto 
him wholly all the affair of him and of his brothers. 
And when that he heard him named, then was he 
very rejoiced that he saw him alive, but he was sore 
grieved in his heart that he saw him so ill at ease. 
And the merchant, as soon as he could, hasted to 
Sir Fulk, and related unto him all his doings, and he 
caused the ship to be brought as nigh unto the city 

as was possible. And on the morrow the merchant 
took a white palfrey, (none other so fair was there in 
all the kingdom,) and he presented it unto King John, 
who received it right gladly because of its beauty. 
And the merchant bestowed such largess, that he 
made himself to be loved of all, and he could do in 
the Court whatsoever it pleased him. And on a day 
he took his companions, and they armed them well, 
and then they put on the gowns wont to be used by 
mariners, and they came to Westminster to the Court, 
and there were they received nobly, and they saw 
William Fitz-Warine led by the warders to the prison. 
And the merchant and his companions, despite the 
warders, took him by force, and they carried him to 
their boat, the which was afloat nigh unto the palace, 
and they all got in. And the warders raised a hue 
and cry, and pursued them. And the merchants 
were well armed, and they defended themselves 
bravely, and they escaped to their galley, and sailed 
towards the high sea. And when Fulk saw William, 
his brother, and John de Rampaigne, who was the 
merchant, it needs not to ask if he was glad. And 
they embraced one another, and each told unto the 
other of his adventures and his misfortunes. And 
when that the King heard that he had been 
113 1 

deceived of the merchant, he held himself very 
badly used. 

And Fulk and his companions arrived in Brittany, 
and there dwelt they half a year and more with their 
kinsfolk and their cousins, And at length he deter- 
mined that naught should hinder him from going 
into England. And when that he was come into 
England, into the New Forest, the which aforetime 
he frequented, he met the King, who was pursuing 
a wild boar. And Fulk and his comrades seized him, 
and six knights with him, and they carried him to 
their galley. And the King and all his retinue were 
sore afraid. And there was much parley ; but at 
length the King put aside all his anger, and he re- 
stored unto them all their heritage, and promised 
unto them in good faith that he would make their 
reconciliation to be proclaimed throughout England, 
and for the doing of this he left his six knights with 
them as hostages, until that the reconciliation was 

And the King went thence to Westminster, and he 
called together the earls and the barons and the clergy, 
and he told unto them openly how that he had freely 
granted his goodwill to Fulk Fitz-Warine and to his 
brothers and to all his adherents, and he commanded 

that they should be honourably received throughout 
the realm, and he granted unto them wholly all their 
heritage. And when that Hubert, the archbishop, 
heard this, right glad was he, and forthwith he sent 
letters to Fulk, and to the Earl of Gloucester, and to 
Randolf, the Earl of Chester, and to Hugh, the earl- 
marshal, that without delay they should come to 
him at Canterbury. And when that they were come, 
they decreed that Fulk, and his brothers, should sub- 
mit themselves at London unto the King. And 
Fulk, and his brothers, and the three earls, with their 
followers, apparelled themselves as richly as they 
knew how and were able, and they came through 
London with great pomp, and kneeled before the 
King at Westminster, and submitted themselves unto 
him. And the King received them, and restored 
unto them all that was theirs in England, and he 
commanded them to remain with him. And this 
did they for a whole month. And then Fulk took 
his leave, and he sojourned with the earl-marshal. 
And the earl made over unto him Ashdown, and 
Wanting, and other lands. And Fulk and his brothers 
armed them as it pleased them, and came to Abingdon, 
and they removed thence all that they could find 
to sell, and caused it to be taken and carried to Wanting, 

and there he established a fair and a market town, the 
which has ever since then been held there, and still is. 
And Fulk took leave of the earl-marshal, and he 
went thence to Earl Randolf of Chester, who was 
making ready with a large force for Ireland to defend 
his rights there. And when that they were arrived, 
they saw a great assemblage of their enemies. And 
the earl commanded that all should arm them. And 
the earl had with him three young brothers, who 
were men of great valour and strength, and they were 
armed and well mounted, and with them was Fulk. 
And at length they saw amongst their enemies a 
hideous giant, who was well armed down to his feet, 
and was hideous, and black, and horrible, and taller 
by twelve feet than any other. And he cried out, 
" Earl of Chester, send me the most valiant knight 
that you have to defend your rights." And when 
that the three youths heard this, they encountered him 
one after the other, and forthwith he slew them with 
the axe which he carried. And at last Fulk let go his 
steed, and would have struck him with his lance but 
that the giant turned aside slightly, and he struck at 
Fulk so that he well-nigh slew him. And Fulk feared 
him greatly, and he watched him closely, until that 
he ran him through the body with his lance. And he 

fell to the ground, and in falling he struck the horse of 
Fulk, and cut off two of its hoofs. And Fulk fell to 
the ground, but he sprang up again, and he drew his 
sword, and cut off his head. And he carried his axe 
to White Town, where Fulk had caused a very strong 
and fair castle to be built in the marsh. And thus did 
the earl conquer all his lands and castles in Ireland. 
And when that he had sojourned there awhile, and 
had set his lands in order, then returned he into 

And Fulk came to White Town, and there he 
found Maude, his wife, and his children, who were 
right glad of his coming, and they had great joy- 
together. Then Fulk caused his treasures and his 
goods to be brought, and he bestowed much lands 
and horses on his fighting-men and his friends, and 
he maintained his lands right worthily. 

And Fulk bethought him that greatly had he sinned 
against God by the slaying of people, and by other 
great misdeeds, and, to acquit him of his sins, he 
founded a priory in honour of Our Lady the Holy 
Mother of the Order of Grandmont, near Alberbury, 
in a wood on the river Severn, the which is called the 
New Abbey. And not long after, Dame Maude de 
Caus, his wife, died, and she was interred in this 

priory. And a good while after that this lady had died, 
Fulk wedded a very noble lady, Dame Clarice de 
Auberville, and by his two wives he begat fair and 
valiant children. And when that Joan, the wife of 
Lewis, the Prince of Wales, and who was the daughter 
of King Henry of England, was dead, because of the 
great renown for prowess and for goodness that Sir 
Fulk had, he sent to him for his daughter Eve. And 
he gave her unto him, and with great honour and 
solemnity were they wedded. But Lewis lived but 
a year and a half after, and he died, and was buried 
at Aberconway, without heir begotten of Eve. And 
afterward was she wedded to the lord of Oswestry, 
who was a knight very adventurous, courageous, and 

And on a night, Fulk and Dame Clarice, his wife, 
were together in their chamber. And the lady slept, 
but Fulk lay awake, and he bethought him of his 
youth, and heartily did he repent him of his sins. 
And ere long he saw in the chamber so great a light 
that he marvelled, and he wondered within himself 
what it could be. And then he heard a voice in the 
air as it were of thunder, and it said, " Knight, God 
has granted thee thy penance, the which avails more 
here than elsewhere." And at these words the lady 

awoke, and she saw the great light, and, from fear, 
she covered her face. And at length the light vanished. 
And after this light never more could Fulk see, and 
he was blind all his days. 

And this Fulk was very hospitable and liberal, and 
he caused the highway to be turned through the hall 
of his manor of Alleston, to the intent that no stranger 
might pass that way without meat or lodging, or 
other regard or goods of his. And Merlin says : — 
" In Britain the Great a wolf will come from the 
White Plain. Twelve sharp teeth will he have, six 
below and six above. He will have so fierce a look, 
that he will drive the leopard from out the White 
Plain, such great strength and virtue will he have. 
But we know that Merlin said this of Fulk Fitz- 
Warine, for each of you may be sure that in the time 
of King Arthur that was called the White Plain which 
is now named White Town. For in that country 
was the chapel of St. Augustine, which was fair, where 
Kahuz the son of Ywein dreamt that he stole the 
candelabrum, and that he encountered a man who 
wounded him with a knife, and bruised him in his 
side. And he cried out so loud as he slept, that 
King Arthur heard him, and awoke from sleep. And 
when Kahuz was awaked, he put his hand to his side, 

and there he found the knife by the which he had 
been wounded. Thus says the Graal, the book of 
the holy vessel. There recovered King Arthur his 
goodness and his valour, when he had quite lost his 
chivalry and his virtue. From this country the wolf 
issued, as says the wise Merlin. And the twelve sharp 
teeth we have recognized from his shield. He bore a 
shield indented as the arbiters have devised. On the 
shield are twelve teeth gules and argent. By the 
leopard may be recognized and well understood King 
John ; for he bore on his shield leopards of beaten 

And this Fulk remained seven years blind, and he 
endured his penance with patience. And Dame 
Clarice died, and was buried in the New Abbey. 
And after her death Fulk lived but a year, and he 
died at White Town. And with great honour he 
was interred at the New Abbey, on whose soul may 
God have mercy ! And the body lies nigh unto the 
altar. May God have mercy on us all, living and 
dead ! Amen ! 


Aberconway, 118. 

Alan, son of Flaeu, 9. 

Alard, xv. 

Alberbury, xiv, io, 34, 47, 48, 61, 

75. H7-. 
Alexandria, 112. 
Alleston, 40, 119. 
Anable, 58. 
Anjou, xv, 66. 

Antiquities of Shropshire, xi. 
Arthur, King, xiii, 32, 119, 120. 
Ashdown, 115. 
Auberville, Clarice de, Fulk's 

second wife, 118, 120. 
Audley, Henry de, 70, 71, 73. 
Augustine, 7. 
Aunflorreis of Orkney, xix, 88. 

daughter of, 86. 

Avignon, Piers d', 47. 

Aymon, Quarte fils, xiii, xv. xvi. 

Babbing, forest of, 48. 
Babylon, 112. 
Bagot, Castle, 86, £8. 
Balaham Castle, 67, 69, 77. 
Baldwin, Castle, see Montgomery, 

Barbary, Messobryns, King of, 

105, 108. 
Belehealme, Ernald de, 2. 
Belehealme, Robert de, 2. 
Belehealme, Roger de, 2, 3. 
Beledyns, the Briton, 9. 
Bertolais, xiv. 

Beteoyle, 104, no. 
Blois, Berard de, 103. 
Bois, Amis du, see Fulk, 79. 
Bordeaux, Huon de. xvi. 
Botiler, Hubert le, Archbishop of 

Canterbury, 57, 76, 115. 
Botiler, Theobald le, 57. 
Bracy, Audulf de, 47, 54, 71, 74, 

76, 85, 91, 93, 94, 95. 
Bradene, forest of, 50. 
Bran, Castle, see Old March, xiii, 

Bran, King, 5. 
Bristol, 3, 10. 
Brittany, 12, 47, 88, 114. 
Brittany, Geoffrey Count of, 41. 
Brittany, John Duke of, 12. 

ten sons of, 12, 15. 

Bruce, Godard de, 18, 20. 

Bruce, Robert, xvii. 

Bruces, the, 13. 

Bruere, de la, Marion, xix, 21, 25, 

28, 30, 31. 
Brugge, Castle of, 2, 3. 
Brutus, 4. 

Bruvile, Piers de, 58, 59, 60. 
Burgh, 5. 
Burgundy, Duke of, 13, 14. 

Candelou de Porkington, 16, 37. 
Canterbury, 53, 75. 
Canterbury. Archbishop of, see 
Botiler, Hubert le, xix, 57, 76, 

Carreganant, grange o., 76. 
Carthage, 90, 94. 
Carthage, Duke of, 90, 94, 107. 
Catalogue of Romances in the 

Department of MSS. in the 

British Museum, x. 
Caus, Maude de, Fulk's first wife, 

57, 75, 7 6 , «£ 
Charlemagne, xiv, xv. 

nephew of, xiv. 

Chariot, xiv. 

Chester, 2, 3, 10, 39. 

Chester, Randolf, Earl of, xii, 

xvii, 99, 100, 102, 104, 115, 116. 
Chettle, Henry, xx. 
Chronicon Anglicanum, ix. 
Ctairfontaine, Aaron de, son of, 

4 8. 
Claris, xvi. 

Coggeshall, Radulph de, ix. 
Colchester, Jordan de, 54. 
Corbet, Sir Thomas, 71. 
Corineus, from whom Cornwall 

has still its name, xiii, 4. 
Cornwall, see Corineus, 4. 
Corve, river of, 3. 
Cosham, brothers, 54. 
County Palatine, 2. 
Courthose, Robert, 10. 
Cristal, xvi. 

Dee, waters of, 10. 

Denmark, 88. 

Descriptive Catalogue of Materi- 
als relating to the history oj 
Great Britain and Ireland to 
the end of the reign of Henry 

Dinorben, 69. 

Donwal, father of King Bran, 5. 

Dordon, xv. 

Dover, 76, 77, 95. 

Droyndoun, Jervard, Prince of 

Wales, 34. 

Dunbars, the, 13. 
Dynan, Castle of, xviii, 2, 3, 20, 
25, 26, 27, 28, 31, 32, 35, 36. 

Dynan, Joce de, 3, 16, 17, 20, 
22-28 (inclusive), 30, 32, 34, 35, 

36, 38, 39, 41. , 

Dynan, see Ludlow, 3, 17, 31, 35, 

Eleyne, it. 
Ellesmere, n, 34, 40. 
Emeline, see Vileine, 48. 
Eneas, son of the king of Scot- 
land, 13. 
Estrange, Guy, sec 1' Estrange, 15. 
Estrat, 69. 

Eustace the Monk, xvii. 
Eve, Fulk's daughter, 118. 
Evvyas, 16, 26. 
Eyton, W., x, xi. 

Fitz- Aaron, Morgan, 49. 

Fitz-Alan, 9, 11. 

Fitz-Candelou de Porkington, 16, 

37, 63, 64. 

Fitz-Ro^er, Moris, 44, 45, 48, 49 

61, 62, 63, 65, 66. 
Fitz-Sampson, 53, 59, 61, 62. 
Fitz-Walter, Robert, xii. 
Fitzwarin, Ivo, xi. 
Fitz-Warine, Alan, Fulk's brother, 

4r, 42, 53, 7i, 76, 85- 

Fitz-Warine, John, Fulk s brother, 
41, 42, 50, 53, 7 6 , io 3-. 

Fitz-Warine, Fulk, his bringing up, 
41; his quarrel with Prince John, 
42 ; skill in arms, 43 ; his estates 
given to Moris Fitz-Roger, 44 ; 
king refuses him redress, 45 ; 
renounces homage to the king, 
46 ; defeats knights sent to cap- 
ture him, 46; fights with Moris 
Fitz-Roger, 48; king sends a 
hundred knights to capture him, 
49 ; robs ten merchants, 51 ; 
price put upon his head, 52 ; 
light with the hundred knights, 

54 ; takes refuge in an abbey, 

55 ; escapes disguised as a monk, 

56 ; goes to Canterbury with his 

brother William, 57 ; marries 
Maude de Caus, 58; punishes 
de Bruvile, 60 ; kills Moris Fitz- 
Roger, 64 ; goes to Prince Lewis, 
64 ; reconciles Prince Lewis and 
Gwenwynwyn, 66 ; gives battle 
to King John at the Ford of 
Gymele, 68 ; Prince Lewis re- 
stores White Town to him, 69 ; 
Lestrange and Audley lead an 
army against him, 70 ; battle at 
the pass of Mudle, 70 ; king 
makes overtures to Prince Lewis 
to surrender Fulk, 76 ; sends his 
wife to Canterbury, and flies to 
France, 77 ; goes to Paris, 77 ; 
jousts with de Montbener, 78 ; 
gives himself out to be Amis du 
Bois, 7Q ; his identity discovered, 
80 ; embarks on Mador's ship, 
83 ; lands on an island, inhabited 
by villains, 84 ; rescues seven 
imprisoned damsels, 87 ; and 
takes them back to Castle Bagot, 
88 ; kills a horned serpent in 
Scandinavia, 89 ; comes to Car- 
thage, 90 ; rescues the Duke's 
daughter from the dragon, 92 ; 
returns to England, 95 ; dis- 
guised as a charcoal-burner 
takes the king prisoner, 98 ; re- 
leases the king, who promises to 
restore his lands, 98 ; takes 
James de Normandy prisoner, 
100 ; and sends hiin disguised 
as himself to the king, 101 ; 
wounded by de Bois, 103 ; is 
taken to Mador's ship to re- 
cover, 104 ; adrift alone, is 
carried to Barbary, 105 ; and 
nursed by Isorie, the king's 
sister, 106 ; gives himself out to 
be Marin le Perdu, 106 ; as 
Messobryn's champion fights 
his brother Philip, 109 ; returns 
to England, in; rescues his 
brother William, 113 ; takes the 

king prisoner, 114; but releases 
him on condition that his lands 
are restored, 1 14 ; he and his bro- 
thers are reconciled with the 
king, 115; joins the Earl of Ches- 
ter in his expedition to Ireland, 
116 ; slays a giant, 117 ; founds 
a priory near Alberbury, 117; 
joins his wife and children, 117 ; 
death of his wife, 117 ; marries 
Clarice de Auberville, 118; is 
struck blind in the night, 119 ; 
dies, 120. 

Fitz-Warine,Philip,Fulk's brother, 
xi, 41, 42, 53, 71, 76, 85. 

Fitz-Warine, William, Fulk's 
brother, xi, 41, 42, 53, 76, 85, 
ior, 102, 104, in, 112, 113. 

Flaeu, 9. 

France, xix, 108. 

France, Gerard de, 47. 

France, King of, 40. 

Fulk I., grandfather of Fulk 
Fitz-Warine, xi. 

Fulk II., see Fulk le Brun, xi. 

Fulk 1 1 1., see Fitz-Warine, Fulk.xi. 

Fulk IV., son of Fulk Fitz-Warine, 

Fulk le Brun, father of Fulk, 16, 
19, 20, 21, 24, 26, 32-41 (inclu- 
sive), 43. 

Fulk, son of Fulk and Maude de 
Caus, see Fulk IV., 75. 

Galloway, King of, 13. 
Garin le Loherain, xiii. 
Geoffrey, Count of Brittany, 41. 
Geomagog, xiii, xix, 4, 6, 7, 9. 
Gloucester, 37, 39. 
Gloucester, Earl of, 115. 
Godebrand, 17. 
Gothland, 88. 
Graal, the, xiii, 120. 
Grandmont, Order of, 117. 
Great March, 5. 
Greece, 112. 
Guichard, xv. 


Gwenwynwyn, son of Owen 

Keveyloc, 65, 66, 67, 68. 
Gwynned, Owen, Prince of Wales, 1. 
Gymele, Ford of, 67. 

Hardy, Thomas Duffus, ix, x. 
Harold, King, 1. 
Hartland, 25, 26. 

Hawyse, daughter of Fulk, and 
Maude de Caus, see Wem, Lady 

of, 75. 
Hawyse, Fulk's mother, xi, xiv, 

16, 19, 24, 26, 34, 38, 41, 47. 
Henry, son of Henry the Second, 

Henry the First, 3, 10. 
Henry the Second, xiv, 37, 38, 39, 

41, 42, 44, 64. 
Hereford, 24, 40. 
Hereward, xvii. 
Hericault, C. d', ix. 
History of Ludlow, x. 
Hodnet, Baldwin de, 42, 46, 47, 

54, 76, 77, 85. 
Holy Land, the, 43. 
Huggeford, 48, 56, 75. 
Huggeford, Walter de, 49. 
Hugh, earl-marshal, 115. 

Iberia, 90, 107. 
Iberia, king of, 90. 
India, the greater, 112. 
reland, xv, 23, 58, 66, 83, 89, 116. 
Isorie, xix, 106, 107, 109. 

Jervard, son of Owen, Prince of 

Wales, 15, 35, 36, 39, 40. 
J oan, wife of Henry de Pembridge, 

Joan, wife of Prince Lewis, 40, 64, 

66, 76, 118. 
John, Duke of Brittany, sons of, 

John, King, his quarrel with Fulk, 

43 ; is crowned, 42 ; gives Fit/- 

Roger White Town, 44 ; refuses 

Fulk redresses ; sends a hundred 
knights to capture Fulk, 46 ; 
confiscates all Fulk's estates, 47 ; 
learns of Fulk's return to 
England, 49 ; puts a price on 
Fulk's head, 52 ; raises an army 
against Fulk and Gwenwynwyn, 
67 ; is defeated at the Ford of 
Gyinele, 68 ; sends de Audley 
with an army to help Lestrange 
against Fulk, 70 ; his interview 
with de Rampaigr.e ,71 ; his 
affection for Maude de Caus, 75 ; 
taken prisoner by Fulk in 
Windsor Forest, 97 ; is released 
on promising to restore Fulk 
his lands, 98 ; takes an army in 
pursuit of Fulk, 101 ; defeats and 
wounds Fulk, 103 ; interviews 
de Rampaigne at Westminster. 
in ; taken prisoner by Fulk in 
the New Forest, 114; released 
on promising to restore Fulk 
his lands, 114; reconciled with 
Fulk, 115. 

Kahuz, son of Ywein, 119. 
Kent, weald of, 52. 
Keveyloc, Owen, 37, 65. 
Key, see Keyenham, 32. 

castle of, 32, 35. 

Keyenham, see Key, 32. 
Keyroc, 11. 
Knokyn, 69. 

Lackland, John, xv, xix. 
Lacy, Walter de, 16, 17, 20, 21, 
25, 26, 27, 28, 31, 33, 34, 36, 38, 

39, 4*- 
Lam bourne, 39. 
Landri, xiv. 
Lanaerth, 65. 
Leland, ix. 

L' Estrange, see Estrange, 15. 
Lestrange, John, 69, 71. 
Lewis, son of Jervard, Prince of 

Wales, 40, 64, 65, 66,-76, 11S. 

L'Histoire Litteraire de la 

France ; ix. 
London, i, io, 40, in, 115. 
Lorraine, 9. 

Ludlow, see Dynan, 3, 41. 
Lys, Arnald de, xviii, 20, 21, 25, 

26, 27, 28, 29, 30. 

Mador, xix, 81, 82, 83, 88, 90, 91, 

94, 95, 103. 
Maelor, 11, 34, 40, 41. 
Magdalene, 22. 
Mahoun, the god, 108. 
Malfee, Girard de, 56. 
Malveysin, John, 54. 
Marin le Perdu, see Fitz-Warine, 

Fulk, 106, 108. 
Marquis, Amis de, 47. 
Matilda, wife of Fulk III., xi. 
Melette, wife of Guarin de Metz, 

11, 12, 14, 15, 24, 34, 38. 
Meredus, son of Beledyns, 9. 
Merlin, xiii, 119, 120. 
Messobryn, king of Barbary, xix, 

105, 108. 
Metheyn, castle of, 65. 
Metz, 9. 
Metz, Guarin de, 12, 13, 14, 15, 

24, 25, 26, 32, 33, 34, 38, 41, 48. 
Meuric, Prince, xi. 
Michel, Francisque, ix. 
Mochnant, 65. 
Moland, L., ix. 

Montaigne, de la, Guy, sons of, 48. 
Montauban, Renaud de, xiii,_xiv, 

Montbener, Druz de, 78. 
Montgomery, see Baldwin, 44. 
Morlas, land of, 10. 
Mortimer Castle, 23. 
Mortimers, the, 23. 
Mountferrant, Gilbert de, 54. 
Mount Gilbert, 2. 
Mudle, pass of, 70. 
Munday, Anthony, xx. 
Murray, count of, 13. 

Nauhendon, 11. 

Nesse, pass of, 63. 

New Abbey, 117, 120. 

New Forest, 114. 

Normandy, xv, 10, 66. 

Normandy, James de, 98, 99, 100, 

Norvyay, 88. 

Nottingham, sheriff of, xviii. 
Nouvelles franqoises en prose du 

xiv* 9 , ix. 

Ogier, xiii. 

Old March, see Bran Castle, 4. 
Orkney, xix, 86, 88. 
Osewaldestre, see Oswald, Tree 

of, 9. 
Oswald, Tree of, see Osewaldestre 

Oswestry, lord of, 118. 

Paris, 77. 

Paris, Paulin, ix. 

Payn Peverel, xii, xix, 5, 6, 7, 8, 

9, 10. 
Payn, son of John, 41. 
Peak, the, 10, 12. 
Pembridge, Henry de, 75. 
Pembroke, 2. 
Pendover, 21, 29, 32. 
Pentlyn, 67. 
Peverel, cattle of, 12. 
Peverel, river of, see Pevereynes, 

river of, 10. 
Peverel, William, 10, 11, 12, 15, 

Pevereynes, river of, see Peverel, 

river of, 10. 
Philip, king of France, xix, 77, 

79, 80. 
Piers Plcnuntan, xvii. 
Pin, Emery de, 101. 
Powis, 2, 34, 65. 
Powis, Jonas de, 35, 41. 
Powis, Roger de, 35, 40, 44. 
Preez, Andrew de, 20. 


Rampaigne, John de, xix, 61, 62, 
72, 73, 76, 78, 85, 94, 99, 104, 
in, 113. 

Randolf, sec Chebter, Earl of. 

Red Castle, 71. 

Rhuddlan, 37. 

Richard Cceur de Lion, 41, 42, 43. 

Robin Hood, xviL 

Roland, xiii. 

Rufus, William, 3, 10. 

Russia, Mount of, 81. 

Ruton, 69. 

Saint Brandan, xvi. 

Scandinavia, 88. 

Scotland, 58. 

Scotland, Eneas, son of the king 

of, 13. . 
bevern, river, 9, 74, 117. 
Sherwood, forest of, xvii. 
Shrewsbury, 2, 40, 63, 67, 68, 74, 

Shropshire, xii. 

Sibylle, 41. 

St. Clement, 89. 

St. Cyriac, 23. 

St. Denis, 80. 

Stevenson, Joseph, ix. 

St. Michael, 12. 

St. Patrick, 89. 

St. Peter, abbey of, 2. 

Teme, river of, 3, 18, 39. 
Trouverc, the, xvi. 
Troy, 4. 

Tunis, 105. 

Umfrevilles, the, 13. 

Vileine, sec Emeline, 48. 

Wales, 3, 40. 

Walter, Theobald, xi. 

Wanting, 115. 

Ward, H. L. D., x, xi, xiii, xx. 

Way bury, 10. 

Wem, Lady of, see Hawyse, 

Fulk's daughter, 75. 
Westminster, in, 113, 114, 115. 
Whitecliff, xiii, 16, 28, 39. 
White Plain, the, 7, 8, 9, 10, ir, 

White-Tower, see Whittington, 

11, 12, 14, 15. 
White Town, xiii, 12, 15, 40, 41, 

44, 45, 48, 61, 69, 71, 74, 117, 

119, J20. 
Whitsand, 77. 
Whittington, sec White-Tower, 

xi, xii, 11, 12, 14, 15. 
William Rufus, 3, 10. 
William the Bastard, 1, 3. 
Winchester, 42, 47, 66. 
Windsor, 95. 
Worcester, 39. 
Wormeslow, 40. 
Wright, Thomas, ix, x, xvii, xix. 

Ydoine of Carthage, 107. 
Ydromor, son of the king of 
Galloway, 13. 


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